Document
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
or
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                  to                 
Commission File Number: 1-13245
Pioneer Natural Resources Company
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
75-2702753
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
 
5205 N. O'Connor Blvd., Suite 200, Irving, Texas
 
75039
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (972) 444-9001
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $.01
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
ý
 
Accelerated filer
o
 
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
o  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
Smaller reporting company
o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    ¨    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).     Yes   ¨     No   ý
Aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter
$
32,009,028,564

 
 
Number of shares of Common Stock outstanding as of February 21, 2019
168,369,523

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
(1)
Portions of the Definitive Proxy Statement for the Company's Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held in May 2019 are incorporated into Part III of this report.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 


3

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

Definitions of Certain Terms and Conventions Used Herein
Within this Report, the following terms and conventions have specific meanings:
"Bbl" means a standard barrel containing 42 United States gallons.
"Bcf" means one billion cubic feet and is a measure of gas volume.
"BOE" means a barrel of oil equivalent and is a standard convention used to express oil and gas volumes on a comparable oil equivalent basis. Gas equivalents are determined under the relative energy content method by using the ratio of six thousand cubic feet of gas to one Bbl of oil or natural gas liquid.
"BOEPD" means BOE per day.
"Brent" means Brent oil price, a major trading classification of sweet light oil that serves as a benchmark price for purchases of oil worldwide.
"Btu" means British thermal unit, which is a measure of the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.
"DD&A" means depletion, depreciation and amortization.
"Field fuel" means gas consumed to operate field equipment (primarily compressors) prior to the gas being delivered to a sales point.
"GAAP" means accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
"GHG" means green house gases.
"HH" means Henry Hub, a distribution hub in Louisiana that serves as the delivery location for gas futures contracts on the NYMEX.
"LIBOR" means London Interbank Offered Rate, which is a market rate of interest.
"MBbl" means one thousand Bbls.
"MBOE" means one thousand BOEs.
"Mcf" means one thousand cubic feet and is a measure of gas volume.
"MMBbl" means one million Bbls.
"MMBOE" means one million BOEs.
"MMBtu" means one million Btus.
"MMcf" means one million cubic feet.
"Mont Belvieu" means the daily average natural gas liquids components as priced in OPIS in the table "U.S. and Canada LP – Gas Weekly Averages" at Mont Belvieu, Texas.
"NGL" means natural gas liquid, which are the heavier hydrocarbon liquids that are separated from the gas stream; such liquids include ethane, propane, isobutane, normal butane and natural gasoline.
"NYMEX" means the New York Mercantile Exchange.
"NYSE" means the New York Stock Exchange.
"Pioneer" or the "Company" means Pioneer Natural Resources Company and its subsidiaries.
"Proved developed reserves" mean reserves that can be expected to be recovered through existing wells with existing equipment and operating methods or in which the cost of the required equipment is relatively minor compared to the cost of a new well.
"Proved reserves" mean those quantities of oil and gas, which, by analysis of geosciences and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be economically producible – from a given date forward, from known reservoirs, and under existing economic conditions, operating methods, and government regulations – prior to the time at which contracts providing the right to operate expire, unless evidence indicates that renewal is reasonably certain, regardless of whether deterministic or probabilistic methods are used for the estimation. The project to extract the hydrocarbons must have commenced or the operator must be reasonably certain that it will commence the project within a reasonable time.
(i) The area of the reservoir considered as proved includes: (A) The area identified by drilling and limited by fluid contacts, if any, and (B) Adjacent undrilled portions of the reservoir that can, with reasonable certainty, be judged to be continuous with it and to contain economically producible oil or gas on the basis of available geoscience and engineering data.
(ii) In the absence of data on fluid contacts, proved quantities in a reservoir are limited by the lowest known hydrocarbons ("LKH") as seen in a well penetration unless geoscience, engineering or performance data and reliable technology establishes a lower contact with reasonable certainty.

4

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

(iii) Where direct observation from well penetrations has defined a highest known oil ("HKO") elevation and the potential exists for an associated gas cap, proved oil reserves may be assigned in the structurally higher portions of the reservoir only if geoscience, engineering or performance data and reliable technology establish the higher contact with reasonable certainty.
(iv) Reserves which can be produced economically through application of improved recovery techniques (including, but not limited to, fluid injection) are included in the proved classification when: (A) Successful testing by a pilot project in an area of the reservoir with properties no more favorable than in the reservoir as a whole, the operation of an installed program in the reservoir or an analogous reservoir, or other evidence using reliable technology establishes the reasonable certainty of the engineering analysis on which the project or program was based; and (B) The project has been approved for development by all necessary parties and entities, including governmental entities.
(v) Existing economic conditions include prices and costs at which economic producibility from a reservoir is to be determined. The price shall be the average during the 12-month period prior to the ending date of the period covered by the report, determined as an unweighted arithmetic average of the first-day-of-the-month price for each month within such period, unless prices are defined by contractual arrangements, excluding escalations based upon future conditions.
"Proved undeveloped reserves" means reserves that are expected to be recovered from new wells on undrilled acreage, or from existing wells where a relatively major expenditure is required for recompletion.
(i) Reserves on undrilled acreage shall be limited to those directly offsetting development spacing areas that are reasonably certain of production when drilled, unless evidence using reliable technology exists that establishes reasonable certainty of economic producibility at greater distances.
(ii) Undrilled locations can be classified as having proved undeveloped reserves only if a development plan has been adopted indicating that they are scheduled to be drilled within five years, unless the specific circumstances, justify a longer time.
(iii) Under no circumstances shall estimates for proved undeveloped reserves be attributable to any acreage for which an application of fluid injection or other improved recovery technique is contemplated, unless such techniques have been proved effective by actual projects in the same reservoir or an analogous reservoir, or by other evidence using reliable technology establishing reasonable certainty.
"SEC" means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
"Standardized Measure" means the after-tax present value of estimated future net cash flows of proved reserves, determined in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC, using prices and costs employed in the determination of proved reserves and a ten percent discount rate.
"U.S." means United States.
"WTI" means West Texas Intermediate, a light sweet blend of oil produced from fields in western Texas and is a grade of oil used as a benchmark in oil pricing.
With respect to information on the working interest in wells, drilling locations and acreage, "net" wells, drilling locations and acres are determined by multiplying "gross" wells, drilling locations and acres by the Company's working interest in such wells, drilling locations or acres. Unless otherwise specified, wells, drilling locations and acreage statistics quoted herein represent gross wells, drilling locations or acres.
All currency amounts are expressed in U.S. dollars.
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Report") contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. When used in this document, the words "believes," "plans," "expects," "anticipates," "forecasts," "intends," "continue," "may," "will," "could," "should," "future," "potential," "estimate," or the negative of such terms and similar expressions as they relate to the Company are intended to identify forward-looking statements, which are generally not historical in nature. The forward-looking statements are based on the Company's current expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections about the Company and the industry in which the Company operates. Although the Company believes that the expectations and assumptions reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable as and when made, they involve risks and uncertainties that are difficult to predict and, in many cases, beyond the Company's control. In addition, the Company may be subject to currently unforeseen risks that may have a materially adverse effect on it. Accordingly, no assurances can be given that the actual events and results will not be materially different from the anticipated results described in the forward-looking statements. See "Item 1. Business — Competition, Markets and Regulations," "Item 1A. Risk Factors," "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" for a description of various factors that could materially affect the ability of Pioneer to achieve the anticipated results described in the forward-looking statements. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date hereof. The Company undertakes no duty to publicly update these statements except as required by law.


5

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

PART I
ITEM 1.
BUSINESS
General
Pioneer is a large independent oil and gas exploration and production company that explores for, develops and produces oil, NGLs and gas within the United States, with operations primarily in the Permian Basin in West Texas. The Company is a Delaware corporation, and its common stock has been listed and traded on the NYSE under the ticker symbol "PXD" since its formation in 1997.
The Company's principal executive office is located at 5205 N. O'Connor Blvd., Suite 200, Irving, Texas 75039. The Company also maintains an office in Midland, Texas and field offices in its areas of operation.
At December 31, 2018, Pioneer had 3,177 employees, 1,006 of whom were employed in field and plant operations and 618 of whom were employed in vertical integration activities.
Available Information
Pioneer files or furnishes annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other documents with the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act"). The SEC maintains a website (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, including Pioneer, that file electronically with the SEC.
The Company makes available free of charge through its website (www.pxd.com) its Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and, if applicable, amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after it electronically files such material with, or furnishes it to, the SEC. In addition to the reports filed or furnished with the SEC, Pioneer publicly discloses information from time to time in its press releases, investor presentations posted on its website and in publicly accessible conferences. Such information, including information posted on or connected to the Company's website, is not a part of, or incorporated by reference in, this Report or any other document the Company files with or furnishes to the SEC.
Mission and Strategies
The Company's mission is to be America's leading independent energy company, focused on value, safety, the environment, technology and our greatest asset, our people. The Company's long-term growth strategy is centered around the following strategic objectives:
maintaining a strong balance sheet to ensure financial flexibility;
delivering economic production and reserve growth;
enhancing drilling, completion and production activities by utilizing the Company's scale and technology advancements to reduce costs and improve efficiency;
developing and training employees and contractors to perform their jobs in a safe manner; and
stewarding the environment through industry leading sustainable development efforts.
The Company's long-term strategy is primarily anchored by the Company's interests in the long-lived Spraberry/Wolfcamp oil field located in the Permian Basin in West Texas, which has an estimated remaining productive life in excess of 40 years. Underlying the Spraberry/Wolfcamp field is 93 percent of the Company's total proved oil and gas reserves as of December 31, 2018.
In February 2018, the Company announced its intention to divest its properties in the South Texas, Raton Basin and West Panhandle fields and focus its efforts and capital resources on its Permian Basin assets. In 2018, the Company completed the following divestitures:
Field
 
Completion date
Sinor Nest (Lower Wilcox) oil field (South Texas)
 
December 2018
West Panhandle gas and liquids field (Texas Panhandle)
 
August 2018
Raton Basin gas field (southern Colorado)
 
July 2018
Western portion of Eagle Ford Shale gas and liquids field (South Texas)
 
April 2018

6

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

The Company continues to actively market its remaining South Texas assets (Eagle Ford Shale gas and liquids field and Edwards gas field). No assurance can be given that the remaining planned divestitures will be completed in accordance with the Company's plans or on terms and at prices acceptable to the Company.
Business Activities
Pioneer's purpose is to competitively and profitably explore for, develop and produce oil and gas reserves. In so doing, the Company sells homogeneous oil, NGL and gas units that, except for geographic and relatively minor quality differences, cannot be significantly differentiated from units offered for sale by the Company's competitors. The Company's portfolio of resources and opportunities are primarily located in the Spraberry/Wolfcamp oil field, and provide long-lived, dependable production and lower-risk exploration and development opportunities.
Petroleum industry. Over the past several years, the oil price environment has been characterized by high volatility. During 2018, Brent oil prices rose to a high of $86.29 per barrel in early October 2018, only to fall late in the fourth quarter to a low of $50.47 per barrel due to concerns over a worldwide oversupply of oil, in large part resulting from dramatic increases in U.S. shale oil production. Additionally, concerns about the potential for slower growth in U.S. and global gross domestic products, which would likely be accompanied by lower oil demand, has contributed to the downward pressure. Recently, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries ("OPEC") members and some nonmembers, including Russia, have renewed pledges to reduce planned production in an effort to draw down a global oversupply and to rebalance supply and demand. Geopolitical factors may also be price-supportive, with the United States having issued sanctions against Iran, although the impact of those sanctions has been muted by waivers. The Company expects ongoing oil price volatility as compliance with the output reduction agreements, changes in oil inventories, extensions to Iranian waivers and actual demand growth is reported.
The growth of unconventional shale drilling in the United States has substantially increased the supply of gas and NGLs, resulting in a significant decline in related prices as the supply of these products has grown. While the industry has invested in initiatives designed to increase takeaway capacity, such as the construction of liquefied natural gas ("LNG") and NGL export facilities, the supply of these products has increased at a faster pace than the overall United States and international demand for these commodities. NGL products and gas supplies are expected to continue to increase during 2019 and prices are expected to remain volatile.
Significant factors that are likely to affect 2019 commodity prices include: the effect of U.S. energy, monetary and trade policies; fiscal challenges facing the United States federal government; the pace of economic growth in the U.S. and throughout the world, including the potential for macro weakness; geopolitical and economic developments in the U.S. and globally; the extent to which members of OPEC and other oil exporting nations adhere to and agree to extend the agreed oil production cuts; the supply and demand fundamentals for NGLs in the United States and the pace at which export capacity grows; and overall North American gas supply and demand fundamentals, including incremental LNG export capacity additions. Because the global economic and political outlook and commodity price environment are uncertain, the Company endeavors to maintain a strong financial liquidity position to support its financial flexibility.
Pioneer enters into pipeline capacity commitments in order to secure available oil, NGL and gas transportation capacity from the Company's areas of production with the objective of transporting a portion of the Company's oil and gas sales to higher priced markets. Specifically, the Company has entered into purchase transactions with third parties and separate sale transactions with third parties to diversify a portion of the Company's oil sales to the Gulf Coast refinery or international export markets and to satisfy unused gas pipeline capacity commitments. These marketing activities provided incremental cash flow of $458 million in 2018, compared to cash outlays of $31 million and $64 million in 2017 and 2016, respectively. Additionally the Company uses commodity derivative contracts to mitigate the effect of commodity price volatility on the Company's net cash provided by operating activities and its net asset value. The Company has entered into derivative contracts for only a small portion of its forecasted 2019 production; consequently, if commodity prices decline, the Company could realize lower prices for volumes not protected by the Company's derivative activities and could see a reduction in derivative contract prices available on additional volumes in the future. As a result, the Company's internal cash flows will be negatively impacted by a reduction in commodity prices or to the extent that sales prices do not cover the third-party purchase price and cost of transportation for that portion of volumes transported to other markets. See "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" and Note 5 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
Liquidity. The Company's primary needs for cash are for (i) capital expenditures, (ii) acquisitions of oil and gas properties, (iii) payments of contractual obligations, including debt maturities, (iv) dividends and share repurchases and (v) working capital obligations. Funding for these cash needs may be provided by any combination of the Company's primary sources of liquidity including: (i) cash and cash equivalents, (ii) net cash provided by operating activities, (iii) sales of short-term and long-term investments, (iv) proceeds from divestitures, (iv) unused borrowing capacity under its credit facility, (v) issuances of debt or equity securities and (vi) other sources, such as sales of nonstrategic assets. Although the Company expects that these sources of funding

7

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

will be adequate to fund its 2019 capital expenditures, dividend payments and provide adequate liquidity to fund other needs, including stock repurchases, no assurance can be given that such funding sources will be adequate to meet the Company's future needs.
Production. The Company focuses its efforts towards maximizing its average daily production of oil, NGLs and gas through development drilling, production enhancement activities and acquisitions of producing properties, while minimizing controllable costs associated with production activities. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company's production of 117 MMBOE, excluding field fuel usage, represented a 17 percent increase compared to production during 2017. See "Item 2. Properties — Selected Oil and Gas Information — Production, price and cost data" for additional information.
Drilling activities. The Company believes that its current property base provides a substantial inventory of prospects for future reserve, production and cash flow growth.
Development activities. The Company seeks to increase its proved oil and gas reserves, production and cash flow through development drilling and by conducting other production enhancement activities, such as well recompletions. The Company's proved reserves as of December 31, 2018 include proved undeveloped reserves and proved developed non-producing reserves of 55 MMBbls of oil, 24 MMBbls of NGL and 142 Bcf of gas. The timing of the development of these proved reserves will be dependent upon commodity prices, drilling and operating costs and the Company's expected operating cash flows and financial condition. During the three years ended December 31, 2018, the Company drilled 801 gross (701 net) exploration and development wells, with 98 percent of the wells (99 percent of net wells) being successfully completed as productive wells, at a total drilling cost (net to the Company's interest) of $8.2 billion, including infrastructure capital.
Exploratory activities. The Company has devoted significant efforts and resources to hiring and developing a highly skilled geoscience, engineering and land staff as well as acquiring a significant portfolio of lower-risk exploration opportunities that are expected to be evaluated and tested over the next decade and beyond. Exploratory and extension drilling involve greater risks of dry holes or failure to find commercial quantities of hydrocarbons than development drilling or enhanced recovery activities.
Acquisition activities. The Company regularly seeks to acquire or trade for properties that complement its operations, provide exploration and development opportunities, increase the lateral length of future horizontal wells and potentially provide superior returns on investment. The Company periodically evaluates and pursues acquisition and acreage trade opportunities (including opportunities to acquire particular oil and gas assets or entities owning oil and gas assets and opportunities to engage in mergers, consolidations or other business combinations with such entities) and at any given time may be in various stages of evaluating such opportunities. Such stages may take the form of internal financial analyses, oil and gas reserve analyses, due diligence, the submission of indications of interest, preliminary negotiations, negotiations of letters of intent or negotiations of definitive agreements. The success of any acquisition or acreage trade is uncertain and depends on a number of factors, some of which are outside the Company's control.
During 2018, 2017 and 2016, the Company spent $65 million, $136 million and $446 million, respectively, primarily to purchase undeveloped acreage for future exploitation and exploration activities in the Spraberry/Wolfcamp field of the Permian Basin. See Note 3 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
Integrated Services. The Company continues to utilize its integrated services to control well costs and operating costs in addition to supporting the execution of its drilling and production activities. The Company owns field service equipment that supports its drilling and production operations, including pulling units, fracture stimulation tanks, water transport trucks, hot oilers, blowout preventers, construction equipment and fishing tools.
The Company continues to construct a field-wide water distribution system to reduce the cost of water for drilling and completion activities and to secure adequate supplies of water to support the Company's long-term growth plan for the Spraberry/Wolfcamp field. During 2018, the Company expanded its mainline system, subsystems and frac ponds to efficiently deliver water to Pioneer's drilling locations. The Company is purchasing approximately 120 thousand barrels per day of effluent water from the City of Odessa and has signed an agreement with the City of Midland to upgrade the city's wastewater treatment plant in return for a dedicated long-term supply of water from the plant. Once the upgrade to the wastewater treatment plant is complete, the Company expects to receive approximately two billion barrels of low-cost, non-potable water over a 28-year contract period (up to 240 thousand barrels per day) to support its drilling and completion activities.
In November 2018, the Company announced plans to close its sand mine located in Brady, Texas and transition its proppant supply requirements to West Texas sand sources. During 2018, the Company recorded $443 million of accelerated depreciation and $7 million of employee-related charges associated with the pending shutdown.

8

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

Asset divestitures. The Company regularly reviews its asset base to identify nonstrategic assets, the disposition of which would increase capital resources available for other activities, create organizational and operational efficiencies and further the Company's objective of maintaining a strong balance sheet to ensure financial flexibility.
Oil and gas activities. In February 2018, the Company announced its intention to divest its properties in the South Texas, Raton Basin and West Panhandle fields and focus its efforts and capital resources on its Permian Basin assets.
In December 2018, the Company completed the sale of approximately 2,900 net acres in the Sinor Nest (Lower Wilcox) oil field in South Texas to an unaffiliated third party for cash proceeds of $105 million, after normal closing adjustments. During 2018, the Company recorded a gain of $54 million associated with the sale.
In August 2018, the Company completed the sale of its assets in the West Panhandle gas and liquids field to an unaffiliated third party for net cash proceeds of $170 million, after normal closing adjustments. The assets sold represent all of the Company's interests in the field, including all of its producing wells and the associated infrastructure. During 2018, the Company recorded a gain of $127 million and employee-related charges of $7 million associated with sale.
In July 2018, the Company completed the sale of its gas field assets in the Raton Basin to an unaffiliated third party for net cash proceeds of $54 million, after normal closing adjustments. The Company recorded a noncash impairment charge of $77 million in June 2018 to reduce the carrying value of its Raton Basin assets to their estimated fair value less costs to sell as the assets were considered held for sale. During 2018, the Company recorded a gain of $2 million associated with this divestiture. The Company also recorded divestiture-related charges of $117 million, including $111 million of deficiency charges related to certain firm transportation contracts retained by the Company and employee-related charges of $6 million.
In April 2018, the Company completed the sale of approximately 10,200 net acres in the West Eagle Ford Shale gas and liquids field to an unaffiliated third party for net cash proceeds of $100 million, after normal closing adjustments. During 2018, the Company recorded a gain of $75 million associated with the sale.
In April 2017, the Company completed the sale of approximately 20,500 acres in the Martin County region of the Permian Basin, with net production of approximately 1,500 BOEPD, to an unaffiliated third party for net cash proceeds of $264 million. The sale resulted in a gain of $194 million.
The Company continues to actively market its remaining South Texas assets (Eagle Ford Shale gas and liquids field and Edwards gas field) and will continue to review its acreage in the Permian Basin and negotiate with other operators in the area to sell or trade nonstrategic properties to achieve operating efficiencies and to improve profitability. No assurance can be given that these divestitures or trades will be completed in accordance with the Company's plans or on terms and at prices acceptable to the Company. See Note 3 and Note 4 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
Integrated services activities. In December 2018, the Company completed the sale of its pressure pumping assets to ProPetro Holding Corp. ("ProPetro") in exchange for total consideration of $282 million, comprised of $110 million of short-term receivables to be paid by ProPetro during the first quarter of 2019 and 16.6 million shares of ProPetro's common stock. The Company recorded a gain of $30 million, employee-related charges of $19 million, contract termination charges of $13 million and other divestiture-related charges of $6 million associated with the sale.
Marketing of Production
General. Production from the Company's properties is marketed using methods that are consistent with industry practices. Sales prices for oil, NGL and gas production are negotiated based on factors normally considered in the industry, such as an index or spot price, price regulations, distance from the well to the pipeline, commodity quality and prevailing supply and demand conditions. See "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" for additional information.
Seasonal nature of business. Generally, but not always, the demand for gas decreases during the summer months and increases during the winter months. Seasonal anomalies such as mild winters or hot summers may impact general seasonal changes in demand.
Significant purchasers. During 2018, the Company's significant purchasers of oil, NGL and gas produced by the Company were Sunoco Logistics Partners L.P. (28 percent), Occidental Energy Marketing Inc. (17 percent) and Plains Marketing L.P. (15 percent). The loss of a significant purchaser or an inability to secure adequate pipeline, gas plant and NGL fractionation infrastructure for its Permian Basin production could have a material adverse effect on the Company's ability to produce and sell its oil, NGL and gas production.

9

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

During 2018, the Company's significant purchaser of oil and gas purchased from third parties was Occidental Energy Marketing Inc. (34 percent). No other purchaser of oil or gas purchased by the Company from third parties exceeded ten percent during 2018. The loss of a significant purchaser of purchased oil and gas would not be expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company's ability to sell commodities it purchases from third parties.
See Note 12 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
Derivative risk management activities. The Company primarily utilizes commodity swap contracts, collar contracts and collar contracts with short puts that are intended to (i) reduce the effect of price volatility on the commodities the Company produces and sells or consumes, (ii) support the Company's annual capital budgeting and expenditure plans and (iii) reduce commodity price risk associated with certain capital projects. From time to time, the Company also utilizes interest rate derivative contracts intended to reduce the effect of interest rate volatility on the Company's indebtedness.
The Company enters into pipeline capacity commitments in order to secure available oil, NGL and gas transportation capacity from the Company's areas of production. The Company enters into purchase transaction with third parties and separate sale transactions with third parties to diversify a portion of the Company's oil sales to the Gulf Coast refinery or international export markets and to satisfy unused gas pipeline capacity commitments.
See "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" and Note 5 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
Competition, Markets and Regulations
Competition. The oil and gas industry is highly competitive in the exploration for and acquisition of reserves, the acquisition of oil and gas leases, marketing of oil, NGL and gas production and the obtaining of equipment and services and the hiring and retention of staff necessary for the identification, evaluation, operation and acquisition and development of such properties. The Company's competitors include a large number of companies, including major integrated oil and gas companies, other independent oil and gas companies, and individuals engaged in the exploration for and development of oil and gas properties. To a lesser extent, the Company also faces competition from companies that supply alternative sources of energy, such as wind and solar power.
Competitive advantage is gained in the oil and gas exploration and development industry by employing well-trained and experienced personnel who make prudent capital investment decisions based on management direction, embrace technological innovation and are focused on price and cost management. The Company has a team of dedicated employees who represent the professional disciplines and sciences that the Company believes are necessary to allow Pioneer to maximize the long-term profitability and net asset value inherent in its physical assets.
See "Item 1A. Risk Factors - The Company faces significant competition and some of its competitors have resources in excess of the Company's available resources" for additional information.
Markets. The Company's ability to produce and market oil, NGL and gas profitably depends on numerous factors beyond the Company's control. The effect of these factors cannot be accurately predicted or anticipated. Although the Company cannot predict the occurrence of events that may affect commodity prices or the degree to which commodity prices will be affected, the prices for any commodity that the Company produces will generally approximate current market prices in the geographic region of the production unless the Company effectively enhances margins through marketing and derivative arrangements.
Securities regulations. Enterprises that sell securities in public markets are subject to regulatory oversight by agencies such as the SEC and the NYSE. This regulatory oversight imposes on the Company many requirements, including the responsibility for establishing and maintaining disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting, and ensuring that the financial statements and other information included in submissions to the SEC do not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements made in such submissions not misleading. Failure to comply with the rules and regulations of the SEC could subject the Company to litigation from public or private plaintiffs. Failure to comply with the rules of the NYSE could result in the de-listing of the Company's common stock, which would have an adverse effect on the market price and liquidity of the Company's common stock. Compliance with some of these rules and regulations is costly, and regulations are subject to change or reinterpretation.
 Environmental and occupational health and safety matters. The Company's operations are subject to stringent federal, state and local laws and regulations governing worker health and safety, the discharge of materials into the environment and environmental protection. Numerous governmental entities, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (the "EPA"), the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") and analogous state agencies, have the power to enforce

10

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

compliance with these laws and regulations and the permits issued under them, which may cause the Company to incur significant capital expenditures or take costly actions to achieve and maintain compliance. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations may result in the assessment of sanctions, including administrative, civil and criminal penalties, imposition of investigatory remedial or corrective action of obligations, the occurrence of delays or restrictions in permitting or the performance of projects and the issuance of orders enjoining the Company from conducting certain operations in a particular area. While the Company's environmental compliance costs have historically not had a material adverse effect on its results of operations, there can be no assurance that such costs will not be material in the future, or that new or more stringently applied laws and regulations will not materially increase the cost of doing business.
The following is a summary of the more significant environmental and worker health and safety laws, as amended from time to time, to which the Company's business operations are or may be subject and with which compliance or the failure to maintain compliance may have a material adverse effect on the Company's capital expenditures, results of operations or financial position.
Hazardous wastes and substances. The federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ("RCRA") and comparable state statutes regulate the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, disposal and cleanup of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. Under the authority delegated by the EPA, the individual states administer some or all of the provisions of RCRA, sometimes in conjunction with their own, more stringent requirements. The Company generates some amounts of ordinary industrial wastes that may be regulated as RCRA hazardous wastes. RCRA currently excludes from the definition of hazardous waste drilling fluids, produced waters and certain other wastes associated with the exploration, development and production of oil or gas. These wastes are instead regulated under RCRA's less stringent non-hazardous waste provisions. There have been efforts from time to time to remove this exclusion, which removal could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations and financial position, and it is possible that certain oil and gas exploration and production wastes now classified as non-hazardous could be classified as hazardous waste in the future.
The federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act ("CERCLA"), also known as the Superfund law, and analogous state laws impose joint and several liability, without regard to fault or legality of conduct, on classes of persons who are considered to be responsible for the release of a "hazardous substance" into the environment. These persons include the current and past owner or operator of the site where the release occurred, and anyone who disposed or arranged for the disposal of a hazardous substance released at the site. Under CERCLA, such persons may be subject to joint and several liability for the costs of cleaning up the hazardous substances that have been released into the environment, for damages to natural resources and for the costs of certain health studies. CERCLA also authorizes the EPA and, in some instances, third parties to act in response to threats to public health or the environment and to seek to recover from the responsible classes of persons the costs they incur. It is not uncommon for neighboring landowners and other third-parties to file claims for personal injury and property damage allegedly caused by the hazardous substances released into the environment. The Company generates materials in the course of its operations that may be regulated as CERCLA hazardous substances.
See "Item 1A. Risk Factors - The nature of the Company's assets and production operations may impact the environment or cause environmental contamination, which could result in material liabilities to the Company" for additional information.
Water use, surface discharges and discharges into underground formations. The federal Water Pollution Control Act, also known as the Clean Water Act (the "CWA"), and analogous state laws impose restrictions and strict controls with respect to the discharge of pollutants, including spills and leaks of oil and hazardous substances, into waters of the United States and state waters. Spill prevention, control and countermeasure plan requirements imposed under the CWA require appropriate containment berms and similar structures to help prevent the contamination of navigable waters in the event of a petroleum hydrocarbon spill, rupture or leak. Additionally, the CWA and analogous state laws require individual permits or coverage under general permits for discharges of stormwater runoff from certain types of facilities. The CWA also prohibits the discharge of dredge and fill material into regulated waters, including wetlands, unless authorized by an appropriately issued permit. Federal and state regulatory agencies can impose administrative, civil and criminal penalties, as well as require remedial or mitigation measures, for noncompliance with discharge permits or other requirements of the CWA and analogous state laws.
The federal Oil Pollution Act ("OPA") sets minimum standards for prevention, containment and cleanup of oil spills into waters of the United States. Under OPA, responsible parties, including owners and operators of onshore facilities, such as exploration and production facilities, may be held strictly liable for oil spill cleanup costs and natural resource damages as well as a variety of public and private damages that may result from oil spills. OPA amends the CWA and thus noncompliance with OPA could result in civil and criminal penalties under the CWA.
The Company may dispose of produced water from oil and gas activities in underground wells, which are designed and permitted to place the water into non-productive geologic formations that are isolated from fresh water sources. The Underground Injection Control ("UIC") program established under the federal Safe Drinking Water Act ("SDWA") requires issuance of permits

11

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

from the EPA or an analogous state agency for the construction and operation of disposal wells. Additionally, the UIC program establishes minimum standards for disposal well operations and restricts the types and quantities of fluids that may be disposed. Because some states have become concerned that the disposal of produced water into underground formations could contribute to seismicity, they have adopted or are considering adopting additional regulations governing such disposal. Should future onerous regulations or bans relating to underground wells be placed in effect in areas where the Company has significant operations, there could be an adverse impact on the Company's ability to operate.
See "Item 1A. Risk Factors - The Company's operations are subject to stringent environmental, oil and gas-related and occupational safety and health laws and regulations that could cause it to delay, curtail or cease its operations or expose it to material costs and liabilities" and "Item 1A. Risk Factors - The Company's operations are substantially dependent upon the availability of water and its ability to dispose of produced water gathered from drilling and production activities. Restrictions on the Company's ability to obtain water or dispose of produced water may have a material adverse effect on its financial condition, results of operations and cash flows" for additional information.
Hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing is an important and common practice to stimulate production of oil and gas from dense subsurface rock formations. The process involves the injection of water, sand and additives under pressure into targeted subsurface formations to fracture the surrounding rock and stimulate oil and gas production. The Company routinely conducts hydraulic fracturing in its drilling and completion programs. The process is typically regulated by state oil and gas commissions, but, in recent years, several federal, state and local agencies have asserted regulatory authority over certain aspects of the process. Additionally, from time to time, the U.S. Congress has considered legislation that would provide for federal regulation of hydraulic fracturing and disclosure of chemicals used in the fracturing process but, to date, no such federal legislation has been adopted. The Company participates in FracFocus, a national publicly accessible internet-based registry that provides the public access to Company-reported information on the additives it uses in the hydraulic fracturing process on wells the Company operates. In the event federal, state or local restrictions are adopted in areas where the Company is currently conducting operations, or in the future plans to conduct operations, the Company may incur additional costs to comply with such requirements that may be significant in nature, experience delays, curtailment or a cessation in the pursuit of exploration, development or production activities, and be limited or precluded in the drilling of wells or the volume that the Company is ultimately able to produce from its reserves.
See "Item 1A. Risk Factors - Laws and regulations regarding hydraulic fracturing, as well as governmental reviews of such activities, could result in increased costs and additional operating restrictions, delays or cancellations and have a material adverse effect on the Company's production" and "Item 1A. Risk Factors - The Company's sand mining operations and hydraulic fracturing may result in silica-related health issues and litigation that could have a material adverse effect on the Company" for additional information.
Air emissions. The federal Clean Air Act (the "CAA") and comparable state laws regulate emissions of various air pollutants through air emissions permitting programs and the imposition of other compliance requirements. Such laws and regulations could require a facility to obtain pre-approval for construction or modification projects expected to produce new air pollutant emissions or result in the increase of existing air pollutant emissions. Additionally, these legal requirements could impose stringent air permit conditions or utilize specific emission control technologies to limit emissions of certain air pollutants. Federal and state regulatory agencies can also impose administrative, civil and criminal penalties for noncompliance with air permits or other requirements of the CAA and associated state laws and regulations.
See "Item 1A. Risk Factors - The Company's operations are subject to stringent environmental, oil and gas-related and occupational safety and health laws and regulations that could cause it to delay, curtail or cease its operations or expose it to material costs and liabilities" for additional information.
Climate change. Climate change continues to attract considerable public, political and scientific attention. As a result, numerous proposals have been made, and are likely to continue to be made, at the international, national, regional and state levels of government to monitor and limit emissions of GHGs. These efforts have included consideration of cap-and-trade programs, carbon taxes, GHG reporting and tracking programs, and regulations that directly limit GHG emissions from certain sources. The adoption and implementation of any federal or state legislation or regulations that require reporting of GHGs or otherwise restrict emissions of GHGs from the Company's equipment and operations could require the Company to incur increased operating costs, such as costs to purchase and operate emissions control systems, acquire emissions allowances or comply with new regulatory or reporting requirements.
See "Item 1A. Risk Factors - Climate change legislation and regulatory initiatives restricting emissions of GHGs could result in increased operating costs and reduced demand for the oil, NGL and gas the Company produces, while the potential physical effects of climate change could disrupt the Company's production and cause it to incur significant costs" for additional information.

12

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

Endangered species. The federal Endangered Species Act (the "ESA") and analogous state laws regulate activities that could have an adverse effect on species listed as threatened or endangered under the ESA. Some of the Company's operations are conducted in areas where protected species or their habitats are known to exist. In these areas, the Company may be obligated to develop and implement plans to avoid potential adverse effects to protected species and their habitats, and the Company may be delayed, restricted or prohibited from conducting operations in certain locations or during certain seasons, such as breeding and nesting seasons, when the Company's operations could have an adverse effect on the species. It is also possible that a federal or state agency could order a complete halt to drilling activities in certain locations if it is determined that such activities may have a serious adverse effect on a protected species.
See "Item 1A. Risk Factors - Laws and regulations pertaining to protection of threatened and endangered species or to critical habitat, wetlands and natural resources could delay, restrict or prohibit the Company's operations and cause it to incur substantial costs that may have a material adverse effect on the Company's development and production of reserves" for additional information.
Activities on federal lands. Oil and gas exploration, development and production activities on federal lands are subject to the National Environmental Policy Act ("NEPA"). NEPA requires federal agencies, including the federal Bureau of Land Management (the "BLM"), to evaluate major agency actions having the potential to significantly impact the environment. In the course of such evaluations, an agency will prepare an Environmental Assessment that assesses the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of a proposed project and, if necessary, will prepare a more detailed Environmental Impact Statement that may be made available for public review and comment. Currently, the Company has minimal exploration and production activities on federal lands. However, for those current activities, as well as for future or proposed exploration and development plans on federal lands, governmental permits or authorizations that are subject to the requirements of NEPA are required. This process has the potential to delay or limit, or increase the cost of, the development of some of the Company's oil and gas projects. Authorizations under NEPA are also subject to protest, appeal or litigation, any or all of which may delay or halt projects. Moreover, depending on the mitigation strategies recommended in the Environmental Assessments, the Company could incur added costs, which could be substantial.
Occupational health and safety. The Company's operations are subject to the requirements of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act and comparable state statutes. These laws and the implementing regulations issued by OSHA strictly govern the protection of the health and safety of employees. The OSHA hazard communication standard, the EPA community right-to-know regulations under Title III of CERCLA and similar state statutes require that the Company organize or disclose information about hazardous materials used or produced in the Company's operations.
Additionally, the Company's sand mining operations are subject to mining safety regulation. The U.S. Mining Safety and Health Administration (the "MSHA") is the primary regulatory organization that regulates quarries, surface mines, underground mines and the industrial mineral processing facilities associated with and located at quarries and mines. The Company's sand mining operations are subject to the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, as amended by the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006, which imposes stringent health and safety standards on numerous aspects of mineral extraction and processing operations, including the training of personnel, operating procedures, operating equipment and other matters.
OSHA amended its legal requirements in 2016, publishing a final rule that established a more stringent permissible exposure to respirable crystalline silica and provides other provisions to protect employees. This final rule required compliance with most applicable requirements by various industry sectors, including the hydraulic fracturing sector, by June 2018. Respirable silica is a known health hazard for workers exposed over long periods. The MSHA has considered the adoption of similar rules, but thus far no such rulemaking has been issued. If any new rule were issued by the MSHA that significantly lowered the workplace exposure limit to respirable crystalline silica, the Company could experience significantly higher costs for sand and pressure pumping services.
See "Item 1A. Risk Factors - The Company's operations are subject to stringent environmental, oil and gas-related and occupational safety and health laws and regulations that could cause it to delay, curtail or cease its operations or expose it to material costs and liabilities" and "Item 1A. Risk Factors - The Company's sand mining operations and hydraulic fracturing may result in silica-related health issues and litigation that could have a material adverse effect on the Company" for additional information.
Other regulation of the oil and gas industry. The oil and gas industry is regulated by numerous federal, state and local authorities. Legislation affecting the oil and gas industry is under constant review for amendment or expansion, frequently increasing the regulatory burden. Also, numerous federal and state departments and agencies are authorized by statute to issue rules and regulations that are binding on the oil and gas industry and its individual members, some of which carry substantial penalties for failure to comply. Although the regulatory burden on the oil and gas industry may increase the Company's cost of doing business by increasing the cost of production, the Company believes that these burdens generally do not affect the Company any differently

13

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

or to any greater or lesser extent than they affect other companies in the industry with similar types, quantities and locations of production.
Development and production. Development and production operations are subject to various types of regulation at the federal, state and local levels. These types of regulation include requiring permits for the drilling of wells, the posting of bonds in connection with various types of activities and filing reports concerning operations. Most states, and some counties and municipalities, in which the Company operates also regulate one or more of the following:
the location of wells;
the method of drilling and casing wells;
the method and ability to fracture stimulate wells;
the surface use and restoration of properties upon which wells are drilled;
the plugging and abandoning of wells; and
notice to surface owners and other third parties.
State laws regulate the size and shape of drilling and spacing units or proration units governing the pooling of oil and gas properties. Some states allow forced pooling or integration of tracts to facilitate development, while other states rely on voluntary pooling of lands and leases. In some instances, forced pooling or unitization may be implemented by third parties and may reduce the Company's interest in the unitized properties. In addition, state conservation laws establish maximum rates of production from oil and gas wells, generally prohibit the venting or flaring of gas and impose requirements regarding production rates. These laws and regulations may limit the amount of oil and gas the Company can produce from the Company's wells or limit the number of wells or the locations that the Company can drill. Moreover, each state generally imposes a production or severance tax with respect to the production and sale of oil, NGL and gas within its jurisdiction. States do not regulate wellhead prices or engage in other similar direct regulation, but there can be no assurance that they will not do so in the future. The effect of such future regulations may limit the amounts of oil and gas that may be produced from the Company's wells, negatively affect the economics of production from these wells or limit the number of locations the Company can drill.
Regulation of transportation and sale of gas. The availability, terms and cost of transportation significantly affect sales of gas. Federal and state regulations govern the price and terms for access to gas pipeline transportation. Intrastate gas pipeline transportation activities are subject to various state laws and regulations, as well as orders of state regulatory bodies. The interstate transportation and sale of gas is subject to federal regulation, including regulation of the terms, conditions and rates for interstate transportation, storage and various other matters, primarily by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC"). FERC endeavors to make gas transportation more accessible to gas buyers and sellers on an open-access and non-discriminatory basis.
Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 ("EPAct 2005") it is unlawful for any entity, such as the Company, to use any deceptive or manipulative device or contrivance in connection with the purchase or sale of gas or transportation services subject to regulation by FERC, in contravention of rules prescribed by FERC. The EPAct 2005 also gives FERC authority to impose civil penalties of up to $1 million per day, subject to annual inflation adjustment, for each violation of the Natural Gas Act ("NGA"), the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related regulations.
Under FERC Order 704, which regulates annual gas transaction reporting requirements, any market participant, including a producer such as the Company, that engages in wholesale sales or purchases of gas that equal or exceed 2.2 million MMBtus of physical gas in the previous calendar year must annually report such sales and purchases to FERC on Form No. 552 by May 1 of the year following the calendar year when such sales and purchases occurred. Form No. 552 contains aggregate volumes of wholesale gas purchased or sold in the prior calendar year to the extent such transactions utilize, contribute to or may contribute to the formation of price indices. Order 704 is intended to increase the transparency of the wholesale gas markets and to assist FERC in monitoring those markets and in detecting market manipulation.
Intrastate gas pipeline transportation rates are subject to regulation by state regulatory commissions. The basis for intrastate gas pipeline regulation, and the degree of regulatory oversight and scrutiny given to intrastate gas pipeline rates, vary from state to state. Additional proposals and proceedings that might affect the gas industry are considered from time to time by the U.S. Congress, FERC, state legislatures, state regulatory bodies and the courts. The Company cannot predict when or if any such proposals might become effective or their effect, if any, on its operations. The Company believes that the regulation of intrastate gas pipeline transportation rates will not affect its operations in any way that is materially different from the effects on its similarly situated competitors.
See additional information in "Item 1A. Risk Factors - The Company may not be able to obtain access on commercially reasonable terms or otherwise to pipelines and storage facilities, gathering systems and other transportation, processing, fractionation, refining and export facilities to market its oil, NGL and gas production; the Company relies on a limited number of purchasers for a majority of its products" and "Item 1A. Risk Factors - The Company's transportation of gas, sales and purchases

14

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

of oil, NGL, gas or other energy commodities, and any derivative activities related to such energy commodities, expose the Company to potential regulatory risks."
Gas processing. The Company's gas processing operations are generally not subject to FERC or state regulation with respect to rates or terms and conditions of service.
See "Item 1A. Risk Factors - The Company's gas processing operations are subject to operational and regulatory risks, which could result in significant damages and the loss of revenue" for additional information.
Gas gathering. Section 1(b) of the NGA exempts gas gathering facilities from FERC jurisdiction. While the Company owns or operates some gas gathering facilities, the Company also depends on gathering facilities owned and operated by third parties to gather production from its properties, and therefore the Company is affected by the rates charged by these third parties for gathering services. To the extent that changes in federal or state regulation affect the rates charged for gathering services, the Company also may be affected by these changes. The Company does not anticipate that the Company would be affected any differently than similarly situated gas producers.
See "Item 1A. Risk Factors - The Company may not be able to obtain access on commercially reasonable terms or otherwise to pipelines and storage facilities, gathering systems and other transportation, processing, fractionation, refining and export facilities to market its oil, NGL and gas production; the Company relies on a limited number of purchasers for a majority of its products" for additional information.
Regulation of transportation and sale of oil and NGL. Intrastate liquids pipeline transportation rates, terms and conditions are subject to regulation by numerous federal, state and local authorities and, in a number of instances, the ability to transport and sell such products on interstate pipelines is dependent on pipelines that are also subject to FERC jurisdiction under the Interstate Commerce Act (the "ICA"). The Company does not believe these regulations affect it any differently than other producers.
The ICA requires that pipelines maintain a tariff on file with the FERC. The tariff sets forth the established rates as well as the rules and regulations governing the service. The ICA requires, among other things, that rates and terms and conditions of service on interstate common carrier pipelines be "just and reasonable." Such pipelines must also provide jurisdictional service in a manner that is not unduly discriminatory or unduly preferential. Shippers have the power to challenge new and existing rates and terms and conditions of service before the FERC.
Rates of interstate liquids pipelines are currently regulated by the FERC, primarily through an annual indexing methodology, under which pipelines increase or decrease their rates in accordance with an index adjustment specified by the FERC. For the five-year period beginning in July 2016, the FERC established an annual index adjustment equal to the change in the producer price index for finished goods plus 1.23 percent. This adjustment is subject to review every five years. Under the FERC's regulations, a liquids pipeline can request a rate increase that exceeds the rate obtained through application of the indexing methodology by using a cost-of-service approach, but only after the pipeline establishes that a substantial divergence exists between the actual costs experienced by the pipeline and the rates resulting from application of the indexing methodology. Increases in liquids transportation rates may result in lower revenue and cash flows for the Company.
In addition, due to common carrier regulatory obligations of liquids pipelines, capacity must be prorated among shippers in an equitable manner in the event there are nominations in excess of capacity by current shippers or capacity requests are received from a new shipper. Therefore, new shippers or increased volume by existing shippers may reduce the capacity available to the Company. Any prolonged interruption in the operation or curtailment of available capacity of the pipelines that the Company relies upon for liquids transportation could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. However, the Company believes that access to liquids pipeline transportation services generally will be available to it to the same extent, if not better given the Company's firm transportation contracts, as to its similarly situated competitors.
In November 2009, the Federal Trade Commission (the "FTC") issued regulations pursuant to the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 intended to prohibit market manipulation in the petroleum industry. Violators of the regulations face civil penalties of up to $1 million per violation per day, subject to annual inflation adjustment. The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the "CFTC") has also issued anti-manipulation rules that subject violators to a civil penalty of up to the greater of $1 million per violation, subject to annual inflation adjustment, or triple the monetary gain to the person for each violation.
See "Items 1A. Risk Factors - The Company's transportation of gas, sales and purchases of oil, NGL, gas or other energy commodities, and any derivative activities related to such energy commodities, expose the Company to potential regulatory risks."
Energy commodity prices. Sales prices of oil, condensate, NGL and gas are not currently regulated and sales are made at market prices. Although prices of these energy commodities are currently unregulated, the U.S. Congress historically has been

15

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

active in their regulation. The Company cannot predict whether new legislation to regulate oil and gas might actually be enacted by the U.S. Congress or the various state legislatures, and what effect, if any, the proposals might have on the Company's operations.
Transportation of hazardous materials. The federal Department of Transportation has adopted regulations requiring that certain entities transporting designated hazardous materials develop plans to address security risks related to the transportation of hazardous materials. The Company does not believe that these requirements will have an adverse effect on the Company or its operations. The Company cannot provide any assurance that the security plans required under these regulations would protect against all security risks and prevent an attack or other incident related to the Company's transportation of hazardous materials.
ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS
The nature of the business activities conducted by the Company subjects it to certain hazards and risks. The following is a summary of some of the material risks relating to the Company's business activities. Other risks are described in "Item 1. Business — Competition, Markets and Regulations," "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk." These risks are not the only risks facing the Company. The Company's business could also be affected by additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to the Company or that it currently deems to be immaterial. If any of these risks actually occurs, it could materially harm the Company's business, financial condition or results of operations or impair the Company's ability to implement business plans or complete development activities as scheduled. In that case, the market price of the Company's common stock could decline.
The prices of oil, NGL and gas are highly volatile and have declined significantly in recent years. A sustained decline in these commodity prices could materially and adversely affect the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company's revenues, profitability, cash flow and future rate of growth are highly dependent on commodity prices. Commodity prices may fluctuate widely in response to relatively minor changes in the supply of and demand for oil, NGL and gas, market uncertainty and a variety of additional factors that are beyond the Company's control, such as:
domestic and worldwide supply of and demand for oil, NGL and gas;
worldwide oil, NGL and gas inventory levels, including at Cushing, Oklahoma, the benchmark location for WTI oil prices, and the U.S. Gulf Coast, where the majority of the U.S. refinery capacity exists;
volatility and trading patterns in the commodity-futures markets;
the capacity of U.S. and international refiners to utilize U.S. supplies of oil and condensate;
weather conditions;
overall domestic and global political and economic conditions;
actions of OPEC, its members and other state-controlled oil companies relating to oil price and production controls;
the price and quantity of oil, NGL and LNG imports to and exports from the U.S.;
technological advances or social attitudes or policies affecting energy consumption and energy supply;
domestic and foreign governmental regulations, including environmental regulations, climate change regulations and taxation;
the effect of energy conservation efforts;
stockholder activism or activities by non-governmental organizations to limit certain sources of capital for the energy sector or restrict the exploration, development and production of oil and gas;
the proximity, capacity, cost and availability of pipelines and other transportation facilities; and
the price, availability and acceptance of alternative fuels.
Commodity prices have historically been, and continue to be, extremely volatile. For example, the NYMEX oil prices in 2018 ranged from a high of $76.41 to a low of $42.53 per Bbl and the NYMEX gas prices in 2018 ranged from a high of $4.84 to a low of $2.55 per MMBtu. The Company expects this volatility to continue. A further or extended decline in commodity prices could materially and adversely affect the Company's future business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity or ability to finance planned capital expenditures. The Company makes price assumptions that are used for planning purposes, and a significant portion of the Company's cash outlays, including rent, salaries and noncancelable capital commitments, are largely fixed in nature. Accordingly, if commodity prices are below the expectations on which these commitments were based, the Company's financial results are likely to be adversely and disproportionately affected because these cash outlays are not variable in the short term and cannot be quickly reduced to respond to unanticipated decreases in commodity prices.
Significant or extended price declines could also materially and adversely affect the amount of oil, NGL and gas that the Company can produce economically, which may result in the Company having to make significant downward adjustments to its estimated proved reserves. A reduction in production could also result in a shortfall in expected cash flows and require the Company to reduce capital spending or borrow funds to cover any such shortfall. Any of these factors could negatively affect the Company's ability to replace its production and its future rate of growth.

16

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

The Company could experience periods of higher costs if commodity prices rise. These increases could reduce the Company's profitability, cash flow and ability to complete development activities as planned.
Historically, the Company's capital and operating costs have risen during periods of increasing oil, NGL and gas prices. These cost increases result from a variety of factors beyond the Company's control, such as increases in the cost of electricity, steel and other raw materials that the Company and its vendors rely upon; increased demand for labor, services and materials as drilling activity increases; and increased production and ad valorem taxes. Decreased levels of drilling activity in the oil and gas industry have historically led to cost reductions for some drilling equipment, materials and supplies. However, such costs may rise faster than increases in the Company's revenue if commodity prices rise, thereby negatively impacting the Company's profitability, cash flow and ability to complete development activities as scheduled and on budget. This impact may be magnified to the extent that the Company's ability to participate in the commodity price increases is limited by its derivative risk management activities.
Declining general economic, business or industry conditions could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations.
The economies in the United States and certain countries in Europe and Asia have been growing, with resulting improvements in industrial demand and consumer confidence. However, other economies, such as those of certain South American nations, continue to face economic struggles or slowing economic growth. If these conditions worsen, combined with a decline in economic growth in other parts of the world, there could be a significant adverse effect on global financial markets and commodity prices. In addition, continued hostilities in the Middle East and the occurrence or threat of terrorist attacks in the United States or other countries could adversely affect the global economy. If the economic climate in the United States or abroad were to deteriorate, demand for petroleum products could diminish or stagnate, which could depress the prices at which the Company could sell its oil, NGLs and gas, affect the ability of the Company's vendors, suppliers and customers to continue operations and ultimately decrease the Company's cash flows and profitability.
The refining industry may be unable to absorb rising U.S. oil and condensate production; in such a case, the resulting surplus could depress prices and restrict the availability of markets, which could materially and adversely affect the Company's results of operations.
Absent an expansion of U.S. refining and export capacity, rising U.S. production of oil and condensates could result in a surplus of these products in the U.S., which would likely cause prices for these commodities to fall and markets to constrict. Although U.S. law was changed in 2015 to permit the export of oil, exports may not occur if demand is lacking in foreign markets or the price that can be obtained in foreign markets does not support associated export capacity expansions, transportation and other costs. In such circumstances, the rate of return on the Company's capital projects would decline, possibly to levels that would make execution of the Company's drilling plans uneconomical, and a lack of market for the Company's products could require that the Company shut in some portion of its production. If this were to occur, the Company's production and cash flow could decrease, or could increase less than forecasted, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's cash flow and profitability.
The Company faces significant competition and some of its competitors have resources in excess of the Company's available resources.
The oil and gas industry is highly competitive. The Company competes with a large number of companies, producers and operators in a number of areas such as:
seeking to acquire oil and gas properties suitable for development or exploration;
marketing oil, NGL and gas production; and
seeking to acquire the equipment, services and expertise, including trained personnel, necessary to identify, evaluate, operate and develop its properties.
Some of the Company's competitors are larger and have substantially greater financial and other resources than the Company, and as such, the Company may be at a competitive disadvantage in the identification, acquisition and development of properties that complement the Company's operations. To a lesser extent, the Company also faces competition from companies that supply alternative sources of energy, such as wind or solar power.

17

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

The Company's operations involve many operational risks, some of which could result in unforeseen interruptions to the Company's operations and substantial losses to the Company for which the Company may not be adequately insured.
The Company's operations, including drilling and completion activities and water distribution, collection and disposal activities, are subject to all the risks incident to the oil and gas development and production business, including:
blowouts, cratering, explosions and fires;
adverse weather effects;
environmental hazards, such as NGL and gas leaks, oil and produced water spills, pipeline and vessel ruptures, encountering naturally occurring radioactive materials ("NORM"), and unauthorized discharges of toxic chemicals, gases, brine, well stimulation and completion fluids or other pollutants onto the surface or into the subsurface environment;
high costs, shortages or delivery delays of equipment, labor or other services or water and sand for hydraulic fracturing;
facility or equipment malfunctions, failures or accidents;
title problems;
pipe or cement failures or casing collapses;
uncontrollable flows of oil, gas or water;
compliance with environmental and other governmental requirements;
lost or damaged oilfield workover and service tools;
surface access restrictions;
unusual or unexpected geological formations or pressure or irregularities in formations;
terrorism, vandalism and physical, electronic and cyber security breaches; and
natural disasters.
The Company's overall exposure to operational risks may increase as its drilling activity expands and as it increases internally-provided well services, water distribution, water collection or disposal and other services. Any of these risks could result in substantial losses to the Company due to injury or loss of life, damage to or destruction of wells, production facilities or other property and natural resources, clean-up responsibilities, regulatory investigations and penalties and suspension of operations.
The Company may not be insured or is not fully insured against certain of the risks described above, either because such insurance is not available or because of the high premium costs and deductibles associated with obtaining such insurance. Additionally, the Company relies to a large extent on facilities owned and operated by third-parties, and damage to or destruction of those third-party facilities could adversely affect the ability of the Company to produce, transport and sell its hydrocarbons.
The Company's operations and drilling activity are concentrated in the Permian Basin of West Texas, an area of high industry activity, which may affect its ability to obtain the personnel, equipment, services, resources and facilities access needed to complete its development activities as planned or result in increased costs; such concentration also makes the Company vulnerable to risks associated with operating in a limited geographic area.
The Company's producing properties are geographically concentrated in the Permian Basin of West Texas. At December 31, 2018, 93 percent of the Company's total estimated proved reserves were attributable to properties located in this area. In addition, the Company's operations and drilling activity are concentrated in this area where industry activity is high. As a result, demand for personnel, equipment, power, services and resources has increased, as well as the costs for these items. Any delay or inability to secure the personnel, equipment, power, services and resources could result in oil, NGL and gas production volumes being below the Company's forecasted volumes. In addition, any such negative effect on production volumes, or significant increases in costs, could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations, cash flow and profitability.
As a result of this concentration, the Company may be disproportionately exposed to the impact of delays or interruptions of operations or production in this area caused by external factors such as governmental regulation, state politics, market limitations, water or sand shortages or extreme weather related conditions.
The Company's actual production could differ materially from its forecasts.
From time to time, the Company provides forecasts of expected quantities of future oil and gas production and other financial and operating results. These forecasts are based on a number of estimates and assumptions, including that none of the risks associated with the Company's oil and gas operations summarized in this "Item 1A. Risk Factors" occur. Production forecasts, specifically, are based on assumptions such as:
expectations of production from existing wells and future drilling activity;
the absence of facility or equipment malfunctions;
the absence of adverse weather effects;

18

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

expectations of commodity prices, which could experience significant volatility;
expected well costs; and
the assumed effects of regulation by governmental agencies, which could make certain drilling activities or production uneconomical.
Should any of these assumptions prove inaccurate, or should the Company's development plans change, actual production could be materially and adversely affected.
Exploration and development drilling involve substantial costs and risks and may not result in commercially productive reserves.
Drilling involves numerous risks, including the risk that no commercially productive oil or gas reservoirs will be encountered. The cost of drilling, completing and operating wells is often uncertain and drilling operations may be curtailed, delayed or canceled, or become costlier, as a result of a variety of factors, including:
unexpected drilling conditions;
unexpected pressure or irregularities in formations;
equipment failures or accidents;
construction delays;
fracture stimulation accidents or failures;
adverse weather conditions;
restricted access to land for drilling or laying pipelines;
title defects;
lack of available gathering, transportation, processing, fractionation, storage, refining or export facilities;
lack of available capacity on interconnecting transmission pipelines;
access to, and the cost and availability of, the equipment, services, resources and personnel required to complete the Company's drilling, completion and operating activities; and
delays imposed by or resulting from compliance with or changes in environmental and other governmental, regulatory or contractual requirements.
The Company's future drilling activities may not be successful and, if unsuccessful, the Company's proved reserves and production would decline, which could have an adverse effect on the Company's future results of operations and financial condition. While all drilling, whether developmental, extension or exploratory, involves these risks, exploratory and extension drilling involves greater risks of dry holes or failure to find commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. The Company expects that it will continue to experience exploration and abandonment expense in 2019.
Part of the Company's strategy involves using some of the latest available horizontal drilling and completion techniques, which involve risks and uncertainties in their application.
The Company's operations involve utilizing some of the latest drilling and completion techniques as developed by it and its service providers. Risks that the Company faces while drilling horizontal wells include, but are not limited to, the following:
landing the wellbore in the desired drilling zone;
staying in the desired drilling zone while drilling horizontally through the formation;
running casing the entire length of the wellbore; and
being able to run tools and other equipment consistently through the horizontal wellbore.
Risks that the Company faces while completing wells include, but are not limited to, the following:
the ability to fracture stimulate the planned number of stages;
the ability to run tools the entire length of the wellbore during completion operations; and
the ability to successfully clean out the wellbore after completion of the final fracture stimulation stage.
Drilling in emerging areas is more uncertain than drilling in areas that are more developed and have a longer history of established drilling operations. New discoveries and emerging formations have limited or no production history and, consequently, the Company is more limited in assessing future drilling results in these areas. If the Company's drilling results are worse than anticipated, the return on investment for a particular project may not be as attractive as anticipated and the Company may recognize noncash charges to reduce the carrying value of its unproved properties in those areas.
Multi-well pad drilling may result in volatility in the Company's operating results.
The Company utilizes multi-well pad drilling where practicable, and wells drilled on a pad are not placed on production until all wells on the pad are drilled and completed. In addition, problems affecting a single well could adversely affect production

19

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

from all of the wells on the pad. As a result, multi-well pad drilling can cause delays in the scheduled commencement of production, or interruptions in ongoing production. These delays or interruptions may cause volatility in the Company's operating results. Further, any delay, reduction or curtailment of the Company's development and producing operations due to operational delays caused by multi-well pad drilling could result in the loss of acreage through lease expirations.
The Company's use of seismic data is subject to interpretation and may not accurately identify the presence of oil and gas, which could materially and adversely affect the results of its drilling operations.
Even when properly used and interpreted, seismic data and visualization techniques are only tools used to assist geoscientists in identifying subsurface structures and hydrocarbon indicators and do not enable the interpreter to know whether hydrocarbons are, in fact, present in those structures. As a result, the Company's drilling activities may not be successful or economic. In addition, the use of advanced technologies, such as 3-D seismic data, requires greater pre-drilling expenditures than traditional drilling strategies, and the Company could incur losses as a result of such expenditures.
The Company's expectations for future drilling activities will be realized over several years, making them susceptible to uncertainties that could materially alter the occurrence or timing of such activities.
The Company has identified drilling locations and prospects for future drilling opportunities, including development, exploratory and infill drilling activities. These drilling locations and prospects represent a significant part of the Company's future drilling plans. For example, the Company's proved reserves as of December 31, 2018 include proved undeveloped reserves and proved developed non-producing reserves of 55 MMBbls of oil, 24 MMBbls of NGL and 142 Bcf of gas. The Company's ability to drill and develop these locations depends on a number of factors, including the availability and cost of capital, regulatory approvals, negotiation of agreements with third parties, commodity prices, costs, access to and availability of equipment, services, resources and personnel, and drilling results. There can be no assurance that the Company will drill these locations or that the Company will be able to produce oil or gas reserves from these locations or any other potential drilling locations. Well results vary by formation and geographic area, and the Company's drilling activities are generally focused on remaining locations that are believed to offer the highest return. Changes in the laws or regulations on which the Company relies in planning and executing its drilling programs could materially and adversely impact the Company's ability to successfully complete those programs. For example, under current Texas laws and regulations, the Company may receive permits to drill, and may drill and complete, certain horizontal wells that traverse one or more units and/or leases; a change in those laws or regulations could materially and adversely impact the Company's ability to drill those wells. Because of these uncertainties, the Company cannot give any assurance as to the timing of these activities or that they will ultimately result in the realization of proved reserves or meet the Company's expectations for success. As such, the Company's actual drilling activities may materially differ from the Company's current expectations, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's proved reserves, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company's operations are substantially dependent upon the availability of water and its ability to dispose of produced water gathered from drilling and production activities. Restrictions on the Company's ability to obtain water or dispose of produced water may have a material adverse effect on its financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Water is an essential component of the Company's drilling and hydraulic fracturing processes. Limitations or restrictions on the Company's ability to secure sufficient amounts of water (including limitations resulting from natural causes such as drought), could materially and adversely impact its operations. Severe drought conditions can result in local water districts taking steps to restrict the use of water in their jurisdiction for drilling and hydraulic fracturing in order to protect the local water supply. If the Company is unable to obtain water to use in its operations from local sources, it may need to be obtained from new sources and transported to drilling sites, resulting in increased costs, which could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In addition, the Company must dispose of the fluids produced from oil and gas production operations, including produced water, which it does directly or through the use of third party vendors. The legal requirements related to the disposal of produced water into a non-producing geologic formation by means of underground injection wells are subject to change based on concerns of the public or governmental authorities regarding such disposal activities. One such concern arises from seismic events near underground disposal wells that are used for the disposal by injection of produced water resulting from oil and gas activities. In 2016, the United States Geological Survey identified Texas as being among the states with areas of increased rates of induced seismicity that could be attributed to fluid injection or oil and gas extraction. In response to concerns regarding induced seismicity, regulators in some states have imposed, or are considering imposing, additional requirements in the permitting of produced water disposal wells to assess any relationship between seismicity and the use of such wells. For example, in Texas, the Texas Railroad Commission has adopted rules governing the permitting or re-permitting of wells used to dispose of produced water and other fluids resulting from the production of oil and gas in order to address these seismic activity concerns within the state. Among other things, these rules require companies seeking permits for disposal wells to provide seismic activity data in permit applications,

20

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

provide for more frequent monitoring and reporting for certain wells and allow the state to modify, suspend or terminate permits on grounds that a disposal well is likely to be, or determined to be, causing seismic activity.
States may issue orders to temporarily shut down or to curtail the injection depth of existing wells in the vicinity of seismic events. Another consequence of seismic events may be lawsuits alleging that disposal well operations have caused damage to neighboring properties or otherwise violated state and federal rules regulating waste disposal. These developments could result in additional regulation and restrictions on the use of injection wells by the Company or by commercial disposal well vendors whom the Company may use from time to time to dispose of produced water. Increased regulation and attention given to induced seismicity could also lead to greater opposition, including litigation to limit or prohibit oil and gas activities utilizing injection wells for produced water disposal. Any one or more of these developments may result in the Company or its vendors having to limit disposal well volumes, disposal rates and pressures or locations, or require the Company or its vendors to shut down or curtail the injection of produced water into disposal wells, which events could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company's gas processing operations are subject to operational and regulatory risks, which could result in significant damages and the loss of revenue.
As of December 31, 2018, the Company owned interests in 11 gas processing plants, including the related gathering systems, and two treating facilities. The Company is the operator of the two treating facilities and none of the gas processing plants. Two of the gas processing facilities are under construction and one of the treating facilities is not currently being used. There are significant risks associated with the operation of gas processing plants and the associated gathering systems. Gas and NGLs are volatile and explosive and may include carcinogens. Damage to or improper operation of gas processing plants, gathering systems or treating facilities could result in an explosion or the discharge of toxic gases, which could result in significant damage claims in addition to interrupting a revenue source.
Moreover, while the Company's gas processing operations are generally not subject to FERC or state regulation with respect to rates or terms and conditions of service, there can be no assurance that such processing operations will continue to be unregulated in the future. Although the processing facilities may not be directly regulated, other laws and regulations may affect the availability of gas for processing, such as state regulation of production rates and maximum daily production allowables from gas wells, which could impact the Company's processing business. Such regulation could result in additional costs and reduced revenues.
The Company may not be able to obtain access on commercially reasonable terms or otherwise to pipelines and storage facilities, gathering systems and other transportation, processing, fractionation, refining and export facilities to market its oil, NGL and gas production; the Company relies on a limited number of purchasers for a majority of its products.
The marketing of oil, NGL and gas production depends in large part on the availability, proximity and capacity of pipelines and storage facilities, gathering systems and other transportation, processing, fractionation, refining and export facilities, as well as the existence of adequate markets. If there were insufficient capacity available on these systems, if these systems were unavailable to the Company or if access to these systems were to become commercially unreasonable, the price offered for the Company's production could be significantly depressed, or the Company could be forced to shut in some production or delay or discontinue drilling plans and commercial production following a discovery of hydrocarbons while it constructs its own facility or awaits the availability of third party facilities. The Company also relies (and expects to rely in the future) on facilities developed and owned by third parties in order to store, process, transport, fractionate and sell its oil, NGL and gas production. The Company's plans to develop and sell its oil and gas reserves could be materially and adversely affected by the inability or unwillingness of third parties to provide sufficient transportation, storage or processing, fractionation, refining or export facilities to the Company, especially in areas of planned expansion where such facilities do not currently exist.
For example, following Hurricane Harvey in 2017 and Hurricanes Gustav and Ike in 2008, certain Permian Basin gas processors were forced to shut down their plants due to the inability of certain Texas Gulf Coast NGL fractionators to operate. The Company was able to produce its oil wells and vent or flare the associated gas; however, there is no certainty the Company will be able to vent or flare gas in the future due to potential changes in regulations. The amount of oil and gas that can be produced is subject to limitations in certain circumstances, such as pipeline interruptions due to scheduled and unscheduled maintenance, excessive pressure, physical damage to the gathering, transportation, storage, processing, fractionation, refining or export facilities, or lack of capacity at such facilities. The Company has periodically experienced high line pressure at its tank batteries, which has occasionally led to the flaring of gas due to the inability of the gas gathering systems in the areas to support the increased gas production. The curtailments arising from these and similar circumstances may last from a few days to several months, and in many cases, the Company may be provided only limited, if any, notice as to when these circumstances will arise and their duration.
To the extent that the Company enters into transportation contracts with pipelines that are subject to FERC regulation, the Company is subject to FERC requirements related to use of such capacity. Any failure on the Company's part to comply with FERC's regulations and policies or with a FERC-related pipeline's tariff could result in the imposition of civil and criminal penalties.

21

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

A limited number of companies purchase a majority of the Company's oil, NGL and gas. The loss of a significant purchaser could have a material adverse effect on the Company's ability to sell its production.
A failure by purchasers of the Company's production to satisfy their obligations to the Company could require the Company to recognize a charge in earnings and have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operation.
The Company relies on a limited number of purchasers to purchase a majority of its products. To the extent that purchasers of the Company's production rely on access to the credit or equity markets to fund their operations, there is a risk that those purchasers could default in their contractual obligations to the Company if such purchasers were unable to access the credit or equity markets for an extended period of time. If for any reason the Company were to determine that it was probable that some or all of the accounts receivable from any one or more of the purchasers of the Company's production were uncollectible, the Company would recognize a charge in the earnings of that period for the probable loss.
Laws and regulations regarding hydraulic fracturing, as well as governmental reviews of such activities, could result in increased costs and additional operating restrictions, delays or cancellations and have a material adverse effect on the Company's production.
Hydraulic fracturing is a common practice that is used to stimulate production of hydrocarbons from tight formations. The Company conducts hydraulic fracturing in the majority of its drilling and completion programs. The process involves the injection of water, sand or other proppants and additives under pressure into targeted subsurface formations to stimulate oil and gas production. The process is typically regulated by state oil and gas commissions or similar agencies, but in recent years, several federal agencies have conducted investigations or asserted regulatory authority over certain aspects of the process. For example, in 2016, the EPA released its final report on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources, concluding that "water cycle" activities associated with hydraulic fracturing may impact drinking water resources under certain circumstances. Additionally, the EPA has asserted regulatory authority pursuant to the SDWA's UIC program over hydraulic fracturing activities involving the use of diesel and issued guidance in 2014 covering such activities. Moreover, in 2014, the EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to collect data on chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing under the Toxic Substances Control Act and, in 2016, published a final rule under the CWA prohibiting the discharge of wastewater from onshore unconventional oil and gas extraction facilities to publicly-owned wastewater treatment plants. Also, the BLM published a final rule in 2015 establishing new or more stringent standards for performing hydraulic fracturing on federal and American Indian lands, but the BLM rescinded the rule in December 2017. However, litigation was filed in federal court in January 2018 challenging the BLM's rescission of the 2015 rule and legal challenges remain pending.
From time to time, the U.S. Congress has considered adopting legislation intended to provide for federal regulation of hydraulic fracturing and to require disclosure of the additives used in the hydraulic-fracturing process. In addition, certain states, including Texas where the Company operates, have adopted, and other states are considering adopting, regulations that could impose new or more stringent permitting, disclosure, disposal and well-construction requirements on hydraulic-fracturing operations. States could elect to prohibit high volume hydraulic fracturing altogether, following the lead of New York. Also, local land use restrictions, such as city ordinances, may be adopted to restrict or prohibit drilling in general or hydraulic fracturing in particular. In Texas, legislation was adopted providing that the regulation of oil and gas operations in Texas is under the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and thus preempts local regulation of those operations. Nonetheless, municipalities and political subdivisions in Texas continue to have the right to enact "commercially reasonable" regulations for surface activities. In the event federal, state or local restrictions pertaining to hydraulic fracturing are adopted in areas where the Company is currently conducting operations, or in the future plans to conduct operations, the Company may incur additional costs to comply with such requirements, experience restrictions, delays or cancellations in the pursuit of exploration, development or production activities, and perhaps be limited or precluded in the drilling of wells or in the volume that the Company is ultimately able to produce from its reserves; one or more of which developments could have a material adverse effect on the Company.
The Company's operations are subject to stringent environmental, oil and gas-related and occupational safety and health laws and regulations that could cause it to delay, curtail or cease its operations or expose it to material costs and liabilities.
The Company's operations are subject to stringent federal, state and local laws and regulations governing, among other things, the drilling of wells, rates of production, the size and shape of drilling and spacing units or proration units, the transportation and sale of oil, NGL and gas, and the discharging of materials into the environment and environmental protection. In connection with its operations, the Company must obtain and maintain numerous environmental and oil and gas-related permits, approvals and certificates from various federal, state and local governmental authorities, and may incur substantial costs in doing so. The need to obtain permits has the potential to delay, curtail or cease the development of oil and gas projects. Over the next several years, the Company may be charged royalties on gas emissions or required to incur certain capital expenditures for air pollution control equipment or other air emissions-related issues. For example, in 2015, the EPA issued a final rule under the CAA lowering the National Ambient Air Quality Standard ("NAAQS") for ground-level ozone from 75 parts per billion to 70 parts per billion

22

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

under standards to provide protection of public health and welfare. In 2017 and 2018, the EPA issued area designations with respect to ground-level ozone as either "attainment/unclassifiable," "unclassifiable" or "non-attainment." Additionally, in November 2018, the EPA issued final requirements that apply to state, local and tribal air agencies for implementing the 2015 NAAQS for ground-level ozone. State implementation of the revised NAAQS could, among other things, require installation of new emission controls on some of the Company's equipment, resulting in longer permitting timelines, and significantly increase the Company's capital expenditures and operating costs. In another example, in 2016, the EPA published a final rule on the criteria for aggregating multiple surface sites into a single source for air-quality permitting purposes that is applicable to the oil and gas industry. This rule could cause small surface sites and the equipment at those sites to be aggregated for air emissions permitting purposes; however, in November 2018, the EPA published a final action that reinterprets source aggregation in a manner that could lessen the likelihood that air projects are aggregated for permitting. In a third example, the EPA and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (the "Corps") released a final rule in 2015 outlining federal jurisdictional reach under the CWA over waters of the U.S., including wetlands. Beginning in the first quarter of 2017, the EPA and the Corps agreed to reconsider the 2015 rule and, thereafter, the agencies have (i) published a proposed rule in July 2017 to rescind the 2015 rule and recodify the regulatory text that governed waters of the U.S. prior to promulgation of the 2015 rule, (ii) published a proposed rule in November 2017 and a final rule in February 2018 adding a February 6, 2020 applicable date to the 2015 rule, and (iii) announced a proposed rule on December 11, 2018, redefining the CWA's jurisdiction over waters of the U.S. for which the agencies will seek public comment. The 2015 and February 2018 final rules are being challenged by various factions in federal district court and implementation of the 2015 rule has been enjoined in 28 states pending resolution of the various federal district court challenges. As a result of these legal developments, future implementation of the 2015 rule or a revised rule is uncertain at this time. Future compliance with these legal requirements or with any new or amended environmental laws or regulations could, among other things, delay, restrict or prohibit the issuance of necessary permits, increase the Company's capital expenditures and operating expenses by, for example, requiring installation of new emission controls on some of the Company's equipment, any one or more of which developments could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations.
Additionally, the Company's operations are subject to a number of federal and state laws and regulations, including the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act and comparable state statutes, whose purpose is to protect the health and safety of employees. Among other things, the Occupational Safety and Health Act hazard communication standard, the EPA community right-to-know regulations under Title III of the federal Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act and comparable state statutes require that information be maintained concerning hazardous materials used or produced in the Company's operations and that this information be provided to employees, state and local government authorities and citizens.
There can be no assurance that existing or future regulations will not result in a delay, curtailment or cessation of production or processing activities, result in a material increase in the costs of production, development, exploration or processing operations or materially and adversely affect the Company's future operations and financial condition. Noncompliance with these laws and regulations may subject the Company to sanctions, including administrative, civil or criminal penalties, remedial cleanups or corrective actions, delays in permitting or performance of projects, natural resource damages and other liabilities. Such laws and regulations may also affect the costs of acquisitions. In addition, these laws and regulations are subject to amendment or replacement in the future with more stringent legal requirements. Further, any delay, reduction or curtailment of the Company's development and producing operations due to these laws and regulations could result in the loss of acreage through lease expiration.
The nature of the Company's assets and production operations may impact the environment or cause environmental contamination, which could result in material liabilities to the Company.
The Company's assets and production operations may give rise to significant environmental costs and liabilities as a result of the Company's handling of petroleum hydrocarbons and wastes, because of air emissions and water discharges related to its operations, and due to past industry operations and waste disposal practices. The Company's oil and gas business involves the generation, handling, treatment, storage, transport and disposal of wastes, hazardous substances and petroleum hydrocarbons and is subject to environmental hazards, such as oil and produced water spills, NGL and gas leaks, pipeline and vessel ruptures and unauthorized discharges of such wastes, substances and hydrocarbons, that could expose the Company to substantial liability due to pollution and other environmental damage. For example, drilling fluids, produced waters and certain other wastes associated with the Company's exploration, development and production of oil or gas are currently excluded under RCRA from the definition of hazardous waste. These wastes are instead regulated under RCRA's less stringent non-hazardous waste provisions. There have been efforts from time to time to remove this exclusion, which removal could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations and financial position. For example, in December 2016, the EPA entered into a settlement agreement with several non-governmental environmental groups in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia regarding the agency's alleged failure to timely assess its RCRA Subtitle D criteria regulations for oil and gas wastes. Under the terms of the settlement, the EPA is required to propose no later than March 15, 2019, a rulemaking for the revision of certain Subtitle D criteria regulations pertaining to oil and gas wastes or sign a determination that revision of the regulations is unnecessary. If the EPA proposes a rulemaking for revised oil and gas waste regulations, the settlement requires that the EPA take final action following notice and comment rulemaking no later than July 15, 2021.

23

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

The Company currently owns, leases or operates, and in the past has owned, leased or operated, properties that for many years have been used for oil and gas exploration and production activities, and petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous substances and wastes may have been released on or under such properties, or on or under other locations, including off-site locations, where such substances have been taken for treatment or disposal. These wastes, substances and hydrocarbons may also be released during future operations. In addition, some of the Company's properties have been operated by predecessors or previous owners or operators whose treatment and disposal of hazardous substances, wastes or petroleum hydrocarbons were not under the Company's control. Joint and several strict liabilities may be incurred in connection with such releases of petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous substances and wastes on, under or from the Company's properties. Private parties, including lessors of properties on which the Company operates and the owners or operators of properties adjacent to the Company's operations and facilities where the Company's petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous substances or wastes are taken for reclamation or disposal, may also have the right to pursue legal actions to enforce compliance as well as seek damages for noncompliance with environmental laws and regulations or for personal injury or damage to property or natural resources. Such properties and the substances disposed or released on or under them may be subject to CERCLA, RCRA and analogous state laws, which could require the Company to remove previously disposed substances, wastes and petroleum hydrocarbons, remediate contaminated property or perform remedial plugging or pit closure operations to prevent future contamination, the costs of which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company may not be able to recover some or any of these costs from sources of contractual indemnity or insurance, as pollution and similar environmental risks generally are not insurable or fully insurable, either because such insurance is not available or because of the high premium costs and deductibles associated with obtaining such insurance.
Climate change legislation and regulatory initiatives restricting emissions of GHGs could result in increased operating costs and reduced demand for the oil, NGLs and gas the Company produces, while the potential physical effects of climate change could disrupt the Company's production and cause it to incur significant costs in preparing for or responding to those effects.
Climate change continues to attract considerable public, political and scientific attention. As a result, numerous proposals have been made and are likely to continue to be made at the international, national, regional and state levels of government to monitor and limit emissions of GHGs. These efforts have included consideration of cap-and-trade programs, carbon taxes, GHG reporting and tracking programs, and regulations that directly limit GHG emissions from certain sources. In November 2018, the Trump Administration released the second volume of the fourth interagency National Climate Assessment that is issued pursuant to federal law. The current version outlines potentially severe climate-related impairments for the United States' environment, economy and public health, which are indicated to worsen over time unless significant measures are taken to, among other things, reduce GHG emissions. This assessment could serve as a basis for increasing governmental pursuit of policies to restrict GHG emissions.
In the U.S., no comprehensive climate change legislation has been implemented at the federal level to date. In the absence of federal GHG-limiting legislation, the EPA has determined that GHG emissions present a danger to public health and the environment and has adopted rules under authority of the CAA that, among other things, establish certain permits and construction reviews designed to allow operations while ensuring the prevention of significant deterioration in air quality by GHG emissions from large stationary sources that are already potential sources of significant pollutant emissions. The Company could become subject to these permitting requirements and be required to install "best available control technology" to limit emissions of GHGs from any new or significantly modified facilities that the Company may seek to construct or modify in the future. The EPA has also adopted rules requiring the reporting of GHG emissions on an annual basis from specified GHG emission sources in the United States, including certain oil and gas production facilities, which include certain of the Company's facilities. Federal agencies also have begun directly regulating emissions of methane, a GHG, from oil and gas operations. In 2016, the EPA published a final rule establishing New Source Performance Standards, known as Subpart OOOOa, that require certain new, modified or reconstructed facilities in the oil and gas sector to reduce certain methane gas and volatile organic compound emissions. These Subpart OOOOa standards expand previously issued New Source Performance Standards, published by the EPA in 2012 and known as Subpart OOOO, by using certain equipment-specific emissions control practices. However, in June 2017, the EPA published a proposed rule to stay certain portions of these Subpart OOOOa standards for two years and revisit the entirety of the 2016 standard, but the rule has not been finalized. Rather, in February 2018, the EPA finalized amendments to certain requirements of the 2016 final rule and, in September 2018, the agency proposed additional amendments that included rescission or revision of certain requirements such as fugitive emission monitoring frequency. Furthermore, in 2016, the BLM published a final rule to reduce methane emissions by regulating venting, flaring and leaking from oil and gas operations on public lands. However, in September 2018, the BLM published a final rule that rescinds most of the requirements in the 2016 final rule and codifies the BLM's prior approach to venting and flaring. The rescission of the requirements in the 2016 final rule is being challenged in federal court.
At the state level, some states are considering and other states have issued requirements for the performance of leak detection programs that identify and repair methane leaks at certain oil and gas sources. State rules may be more stringent than federal rules.

24

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

Compliance with the EPA's 2016 rule and the BLM's 2016 rule, to the extent either are in effect, or with any future federal or state methane regulations could, among other things, require installation of new emission controls on some of the Company's equipment and significantly increase the Company's capital expenditures and operating costs.
Internationally, in late 2015, the U.S. joined other countries in entering into a United Nations sponsored non-binding agreement in Paris, France for nations to limit their GHG emissions through individually determined emission reduction goals every five years beginning in 2020. In August 2017, the U.S. State Department informed the United Nations of the United States' intention to withdraw from this Paris agreement, which provides for a four-year exit process beginning when it took effect in November 2016.
The adoption and implementation of any federal or state legislation or regulations or international agreements that require reporting of GHGs or otherwise restrict emissions of GHGs from the Company's equipment and operations could require the Company to incur increased capital and operating costs, such as costs to purchase and operate emissions control systems, acquire emissions allowances or comply with new regulatory or reporting requirements, including the imposition of a carbon tax, any of which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. Moreover, such new legislation or regulatory programs as well as conservation plans and efforts undertaken in response to climate change could also materially and adversely affect demand for the oil, NGLs and gas the Company produces and lower the value of its reserves. Depending on the severity of any such limitations, the effect on the value of the Company's reserves could be material. Non-governmental activism directed at shifting funding away from companies with energy-related assets could result in limitations or restrictions on certain sources of funding for the energy sector. In addition, increasing attention to the risks of climate change has resulted in an increased possibility of lawsuits brought by public and private entities against oil and gas companies in connection with their GHG emissions. Should the Company be targeted by any such litigation, it may incur substantial costs, which, to the extent that societal pressures or political or other factors are involved, could be imposed without regard to the causation of or contribution to the asserted damage, or to other mitigating factors.
Finally, it should be noted that some scientists have concluded that increasing concentrations of GHGs in the Earth's atmosphere may produce climate changes that have significant physical effects, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, floods, droughts and other extreme climatic events. If any such effects were to occur, they could have a material adverse effect on the Company's exploration and production operations.
Laws and regulations pertaining to protection of threatened and endangered species or to critical habitat, wetlands and natural resources could delay, restrict or prohibit the Company's operations and cause it to incur substantial costs that may have a material adverse effect on the Company's development and production of reserves.
The federal ESA and comparable state laws were established to protect endangered and threatened species. Under the ESA, if a species is listed as threatened or endangered, restrictions may be imposed on activities adversely affecting that species' habitat. Similar protections are offered to migratory birds under the Federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Oil and gas operations in the Company's operating areas may be adversely affected by seasonal or permanent restrictions imposed on drilling activities by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services (the "FWS") that are designed to protect various wildlife, which may materially restrict the Company's access to federal or private land use. Permanent restrictions imposed to protect endangered and threatened species could prohibit drilling in certain areas, impact suppliers of critical materials or services, or require the implementation of expensive mitigation measures. Additionally, federal statutes, including the CWA, the OPA and CERCLA, as well as comparable state laws, prohibit certain actions that adversely affect critical habitat, wetlands and natural resources. If harm to species or damages to wetlands, habitat or natural resources occur or may occur, government entities or, at times, private parties may act to prevent oil and gas exploration or development activities or seek damages for harm to species, habitat or natural resources resulting from drilling, construction or releases of petroleum hydrocarbons, wastes, hazardous substances or other regulated materials, and, in some cases, may seek criminal penalties.
Moreover, as a result of one or more settlements entered into by the FWS, the agency is required to make determinations on the potential listing of numerous species as endangered or threatened under the ESA. The designation of previously unprotected species as threatened or endangered in areas where the Company conducts operations could cause the Company to incur increased costs arising from species protection measures or could result in delays, restrictions or prohibitions on its development and production activities that could have a material adverse effect on the Company's ability to develop and produce reserves.
Future price declines could result in a reduction in the carrying value of the Company's proved oil and gas properties, which could materially and adversely affect the Company's results of operations.
Significant or extended price declines could result in the Company having to make downward adjustments to the carrying value of its proved oil and gas properties. The Company performs assessments of its oil and gas properties whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying values of those assets may not be recoverable. In order to perform these assessments, management uses various observable and unobservable inputs, including management's outlooks for (i) proved reserves and risk-

25

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

adjusted probable and possible reserves, (ii) commodity prices, (iii) production costs, (iv) capital expenditures and (v) production. To the extent such tests indicate a reduction of the estimated useful life or estimated future cash flows of the Company's oil and gas properties, the carrying value may not be recoverable and therefore an impairment charge would be required to reduce the carrying value of the proved properties to their fair value. For example, during 2018 and 2017 the Company recorded impairment charges of $77 million and $285 million, respectively, attributable to its Raton Basin field in southeast Colorado, and in 2016, the Company recorded an impairment charge of $32 million attributable to its West Panhandle field assets in the panhandle region of Texas, primarily due to declines in commodity prices and downward adjustments to the economically recoverable reserves attributable to each asset. The Company may incur impairment charges in the future, which could materially affect the Company's results of operations in the period incurred. See "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Results of Operations - Impairment of oil and gas properties and other long-lived assets" and Note 4 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
A portion of the Company's total estimated proved reserves at December 31, 2018 were undeveloped, and those proved reserves may not ultimately be developed.
At December 31, 2018, approximately eight percent of the Company's total estimated proved reserves were undeveloped. Recovery of undeveloped proved reserves requires significant capital expenditures and successful drilling. The Company's reserve data assumes that the Company can and will make these expenditures and conduct these operations successfully, which assumptions may not prove to be correct. If the Company chooses not to spend the capital to develop these proved undeveloped reserves, or if the Company is not otherwise able to successfully develop these proved undeveloped reserves, the Company will be required to write-off these proved reserves. In addition, under the SEC's rules, because proved undeveloped reserves may be booked only if they relate to wells planned to be drilled within five years of the date of booking, the Company may be required to write-off any proved undeveloped reserves that are not developed within this five-year timeframe. As with all oil and gas leases, the Company's leases require the Company to drill wells that are commercially productive and to maintain the production in paying quantities, and if the Company is unsuccessful in drilling such wells and maintaining such production, the Company could lose its rights under such leases. The Company's future production levels and, therefore, its future cash flow and income are highly dependent on successfully developing its proved undeveloped leasehold acreage.
Estimates of proved reserves and future net cash flows are not precise. The actual quantities and net cash flows of the Company's proved reserves may prove to be lower than estimated.
Numerous uncertainties exist in estimating quantities of proved reserves and future net cash flows therefrom. The estimates of proved reserves and related future net cash flows set forth in this Report are based on various assumptions, which may ultimately prove to be inaccurate.
Petroleum engineering is a subjective process of estimating underground accumulations of oil and gas that cannot be measured in an exact manner. Estimates of economically recoverable oil and gas reserves and estimates of future net cash flows depend upon a number of variable factors and assumptions, including the following:
historical production from the area compared with production from other producing areas;
the quality and quantity of available data;
the interpretation of that data;
the assumed effects of regulations by governmental agencies;
assumptions concerning future commodity prices; and
assumptions concerning future development costs, operating costs, severance, ad valorem and excise taxes, gathering, processing, transportation and fractionation costs and workover and remedial costs.
Because all proved reserve estimates are to some degree subjective, each of the following items may differ materially from those assumed in estimating proved reserves:
the quantities of oil and gas that are ultimately recovered;
the production costs incurred to recover the reserves;
the amount and timing of future development expenditures; and
future commodity prices.
Furthermore, different reserve engineers may make different estimates of proved reserves and cash flows based on the same available data. The Company's actual production, revenues and expenditures with respect to proved reserves will likely be different from estimates, and the differences may be material.

26

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

As required by the SEC, the estimated discounted future net cash flows from proved reserves are based on average prices preceding the date of the estimate and costs as of the date of the estimate, while actual future prices and costs may be materially higher or lower. Actual future net cash flows also will be affected by factors such as:
the amount and timing of actual production;
the level of future capital spending;
increases or decreases in the supply of or demand for oil, NGL and gas; and
changes in governmental regulations or taxation.
Standardized Measure is a reporting convention that provides a common basis for comparing oil and gas companies subject to the rules and regulations of the SEC. In general, it requires the use of commodity prices that are based upon a historical 12-month unweighted average, as well as operating and development costs being incurred at the end of the reporting period. Consequently, it may not reflect the prices ordinarily received or that will be received for future oil and gas production because of seasonal price fluctuations or other varying market conditions, nor may it reflect the actual costs that will be required to produce or develop the oil and gas properties. Accordingly, estimates included herein of future net cash flows may be materially different from the future net cash flows that are ultimately received. In addition, the ten percent discount factor, which is required by the SEC to be used in calculating discounted future net cash flows for reporting purposes, may not be the most appropriate discount factor based on interest rates in effect from time to time and risks associated with the Company or the oil and gas industry in general. Therefore, the estimates of discounted future net cash flows or Standardized Measure in this Report should not be construed as accurate estimates of the current market value of the Company's proved reserves.
The Company periodically evaluates its unproved oil and gas properties to determine recoverability of its cost and could be required to recognize noncash charges in the earnings of future periods.
At December 31, 2018, the Company carried unproved oil and gas property costs of $601 million. GAAP requires periodic evaluation of these costs on a project-by-project basis. These evaluations are affected by the results of exploration activities, commodity price outlooks, planned future sales or expiration of all or a portion of the leases and the contracts and permits appurtenant to such projects. If the quantity of potential reserves determined by such evaluations is not sufficient to fully recover the cost invested in each project, the Company will recognize noncash charges in the earnings of future periods.
Because the Company's proved reserves and production decline continually over time, the Company will need to mitigate these declines through drilling and production enhancement initiatives and/or acquisitions.
Producing oil and gas reservoirs are characterized by declining production rates, which vary depending upon reservoir characteristics and other factors. Because the Company's proved reserves and production decline continually over time as those reserves are produced, the Company will need to mitigate these declines through drilling and production enhancement initiatives and/or acquisitions of additional recoverable reserves. There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to develop, exploit, find or acquire sufficient additional reserves to replace its current or future production.
The Company may be unable to make attractive acquisitions and any acquisition it completes is subject to substantial risks that could materially and adversely affect its business.
Acquisitions of oil and gas properties, including acreage trades, have from time to time contributed to the Company's growth. Acquisition opportunities in the oil and gas industry are very competitive, which can increase the cost of, or cause the Company to refrain from, completing acquisitions. The success of any acquisition will depend on a number of factors and involves potential risks, including, among other things:
the inability to estimate accurately the costs to develop the reserves, the recoverable volumes of reserves, rates of future production and future net cash flows attainable from the reserves;
the assumption of unknown liabilities, including environmental liabilities, and losses or costs for which the Company is not indemnified or for which the indemnity the Company receives is inadequate;
the validity of assumptions about costs, including synergies;
the effect on the Company's liquidity or financial leverage of using available cash or debt to finance acquisitions;
the diversion of management's attention from other business concerns; and
an inability to hire, train or retain qualified personnel to manage and operate the Company's growing business and assets.
All of these factors affect whether an acquisition will ultimately generate cash flows sufficient to provide a suitable return on investment. Even though the Company performs a review of the properties it seeks to acquire that it believes is consistent with industry practices, such reviews are often limited in scope. As a result, among other risks, the Company's initial estimates of

27

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

reserves may be subject to revision following an acquisition, which may materially and adversely affect the desired benefits of the acquisition.
The Company's ability to complete dispositions of assets, or interests in assets, may be subject to factors beyond its control, and in certain cases the Company may be required to retain liabilities for certain matters.
From time to time, the Company sells an interest in a strategic asset for the purpose of assisting or accelerating the asset's development. In addition, the Company regularly reviews its property base for the purpose of identifying nonstrategic assets, the disposition of which would increase capital resources available for other activities and create organizational and operational efficiencies. Various factors could materially affect the ability of the Company to dispose of such interests or nonstrategic assets or complete announced dispositions, including the receipt of approvals of governmental agencies or third parties and the availability of purchasers willing to acquire the interests or purchase the nonstrategic assets on terms and at prices acceptable to the Company.
Sellers typically retain certain liabilities or indemnify buyers for certain pre-closing matters, such as matters of litigation, environmental contingencies, royalty obligations and income taxes. The magnitude of any such retained liability or indemnification obligation may be difficult to quantify at the time of the transaction and ultimately may be material. Also, as is typical in divestiture transactions, third parties may be unwilling to release the Company from guarantees or other credit support provided prior to the sale of the divested assets. As a result, after a divestiture, the Company may remain secondarily liable for the obligations guaranteed or supported to the extent that the buyer of the assets fails to perform these obligations.
The Company's transportation of gas, sales and purchases of oil, NGLs and gas or other energy commodities, and any derivative activities related to such energy commodities, expose the Company to potential regulatory risks.
The FERC, the FTC and the CFTC hold statutory authority to monitor certain segments of the physical and futures energy commodities markets relevant to the Company's business. These agencies have imposed broad regulations prohibiting fraud and manipulation of such markets. With regard to the Company's transportation of gas in interstate commerce, physical sales and purchases of oil, NGL, gas or other energy commodities, and any derivative activities related to these energy commodities, the Company is required to observe the market-related regulations enforced by these agencies, which hold substantial enforcement authority. Failures to comply with such regulations, as interpreted and enforced, could materially and adversely affect the Company's results of operations and financial condition.
The Company's derivative risk management activities could result in financial losses; the Company may not enter into derivative arrangements with respect to future volumes if prices are unattractive.
To mitigate the effect of commodity price volatility on the Company's net cash provided by operating activities and its net asset value, support the Company's annual capital budgeting and expenditure plans and reduce commodity price risk associated with certain capital projects, the Company's strategy is to enter into derivative arrangements covering a portion of its oil, NGL and gas production. These derivative arrangements are subject to mark-to-market accounting treatment, and the changes in fair market value of the contracts are reported in the Company's statements of operations each quarter, which may result in significant noncash gains or losses. These derivative contracts may also expose the Company to risk of financial loss in certain circumstances, including when:
production is less than the contracted derivative volumes;
the counterparty to the derivative contract defaults on its contract obligations;
there is a change in the expected differential between the underlying price in the derivative contract and actual prices received;
a sudden, unexpected event materially impacts oil and gas prices; or
the derivative contracts limit the benefit the Company would otherwise receive from increases in commodity prices.
On the other hand, failure to protect against declines in commodity prices exposes the Company to reduced liquidity when prices decline. A sustained lower commodity price environment would result in lower realized prices for unprotected volumes and reduce the prices at which the Company could enter into derivative contracts on future volumes. This could make such transactions unattractive, and, as a result, some or all of the Company's production volumes forecasted for 2019 and beyond may not be protected by derivative arrangements. In addition, the Company's derivatives arrangements may not achieve their intended strategic purposes.
The failure by counterparties to the Company's derivative risk management activities to perform their obligations could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations.
The use of derivative risk management transactions involves the risk that the counterparties will be unable to meet the financial terms of such transactions. The Company is unable to predict changes in a counterparty's creditworthiness or ability to perform. Even if the Company accurately predicts sudden changes, the Company's ability to negate the risk may be limited

28

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

depending upon market conditions and the contractual terms of the transactions. During periods of declining commodity prices, the Company's derivative receivable positions generally increase, which increases the Company's counterparty credit exposure. If any of the Company's counterparties were to default on its obligations under the Company's derivative arrangements, such a default could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations, and could result in a larger percentage of the Company's future production being subject to commodity price changes and could increase the likelihood that the Company's derivative arrangements may not achieve their intended strategic purposes.
The enactment of derivatives legislation could have a material adverse effect on the Company's ability to use derivative instruments to reduce the effect of commodity price, interest rate and other risks associated with its business.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act") enacted in July 2010, established federal oversight and regulation of the over-the-counter derivatives market and entities, such as the Company, that participate in that market. The Dodd-Frank Act requires the CFTC and the SEC to promulgate rules and regulations for its implementation. While many Dodd-Frank Act regulations are already in effect, the rulemaking and implementation process is ongoing, and the ultimate effect of the adopted rules and regulations and any future rules and regulations on the Company's business remain uncertain.
In one of the rulemaking proceedings still pending under the Dodd-Frank Act, the CFTC issued in December 2016, proposed rules imposing position limits for certain futures and options contracts in various commodities (including oil and gas) and for swaps that are their economic equivalents. Under the proposed rules on position limits, certain types of derivative transactions are exempt from these limits, provided that such derivative transactions satisfy the CFTC's requirements for certain enumerated "bona fide" derivative transactions. These rules may affect both the size of the positions that the Company may hold and the ability or willingness of counterparties to trade with the Company, potentially increasing the costs of transactions. Moreover, such changes could materially reduce the Company's access to derivative opportunities, which could adversely affect revenues or cash flow during periods of low commodity prices. As these new position limit rules are not yet final, the impact of those provisions on the Company is uncertain at this time.
The CFTC has designated certain interest rate swaps and credit default swaps for mandatory clearing and the associated rules also will require the Company, in connection with covered derivative activities, to comply with clearing and trade-execution requirements or take steps to qualify for an exemption to such requirements. Although the Company believes it qualifies for the end-user exception from the mandatory clearing requirements for swaps entered to mitigate its commercial risks, the application of the mandatory clearing and trade execution requirements to other market participants, such as swap dealers, may change the cost and availability of the swaps that the Company uses. If the Company's swaps do not qualify for the commercial end-user exception, or if the cost of entering into uncleared swaps becomes prohibitive, the Company may be required to clear such transactions. The ultimate effect of the proposed rules and any additional regulations on the Company's business is uncertain.
In addition, certain banking regulators and the CFTC have adopted final rules establishing minimum margin requirements for uncleared swaps. Although the Company expects to qualify for the end-user exception from margin requirements for swaps entered into to manage its commercial risks, the application of such requirements to other market participants, such as swap dealers, may change the cost and availability of the swaps that the Company uses. If any of the Company's swaps do not qualify for the commercial end-user exception, the posting of collateral could reduce its liquidity and cash available for capital expenditures and could reduce its ability to manage commodity price volatility and the volatility in its cash flows.
The full impact of the Dodd-Frank Act and related regulatory requirements upon the Company's business will not be known until the regulations are implemented and the market for derivatives contracts has adjusted. The Dodd-Frank Act and any new regulations could significantly increase the cost of derivative contracts, materially alter the terms of derivative contracts, reduce the availability of derivatives to protect against risks the Company encounters and reduce the Company's ability to monetize or restructure its existing derivative contracts. If the Company reduces its use of derivatives as a result of the Dodd-Frank Act and regulations, the Company's results of operations may become more volatile and its cash flows may be less predictable, which could materially and adversely affect the Company's ability to plan for and fund capital expenditures. Finally, the Dodd-Frank Act was intended, in part, to reduce the volatility of oil and gas prices, which some legislators attributed to speculative trading in derivatives and commodity instruments related to oil and gas. The Company's revenues could therefore be materially and adversely affected if a consequence of the Dodd-Frank Act and implementing regulations is to lower commodity prices. Any of these consequences could have a material adverse effect on the Company, its financial condition and its results of operations. In addition, the European Union and other non-U.S. jurisdictions are implementing regulations with respect to the derivatives market. To the extent the Company transacts with counterparties in foreign jurisdictions, it may become subject to such regulations. At this time, the impact of such regulations is not clear.
The future of the SEC and CFTC's rulemaking remains uncertain. Regulatory agendas that were released in late 2017 indicated that the SEC and CFTC plan to pursue fewer rulemaking items than in prior years. For example, the CFTC announced its intent to take action on an agency-wide internal review focused on simplifying and modernizing CFTC rules, regulations and

29

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

practices and focus on streamlining the implementation of existing regulations and practices. Although the SEC and the CFTC's agendas are less expansive than they have been in the past, wholesale deregulation of the markets will not necessarily be the outcome. For example, the CFTC plans to take a new look at passing rules on position limits for certain futures contracts, and the SEC intends to re-propose rules for "plain vanilla" exchange-traded funds and add amendments to the Volcker Rule. The Trump Administration has also indicated in public statements that the Dodd-Frank Act will be under scrutiny and that some of its provisions and the rules promulgated thereunder may be revised, repealed or amended. Any such changes, including their nature and impact, cannot yet be determined with any degree of certainty.
Moreover, regulation by the CFTC and banking regulators of the over-the-counter derivatives market and market participants could cause the Company's contract counterparties, which are generally financial institutions and other market participants, to curtail or cease their derivatives activities, which could materially and adversely affect the cost and availability of derivatives to the Company.
Finally, the European Union and other non-U.S. jurisdictions are implementing regulations with respect to the derivatives market. To the extent the Company transacts with counterparties in foreign jurisdictions or counterparties with other businesses that subject them to regulations in foreign jurisdictions, the Company may become subject to, or otherwise affected by, such regulations.
The Company is a party to debt instruments, a credit facility and other financial commitments that may restrict its business and financing activities.
The Company is a borrower under fixed rate senior notes and maintains a credit facility that is currently undrawn. The terms of the Company's borrowings specify scheduled debt repayments and require the Company to comply with certain associated covenants and restrictions. The Company's ability to comply with the debt repayment terms, associated covenants and restrictions is dependent on, among other things, factors outside the Company's direct control, such as commodity prices and interest rates. In addition, from time to time, the Company enters into arrangements and transactions that can give rise to material off-balance sheet obligations, including firm purchase, transportation and fractionation commitments, gathering, processing and transportation commitments on uncertain volumes of future throughput, commitments to purchase minimum volumes of goods and services, operating lease agreements and drilling commitments. The Company's financial commitments could have important consequences to its business including, but not limited to, the following:
the incurrence of charges associated with unused commitments if future events do not meet the Company's expectations at the time such commitments are entered into;
increasing its vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions;
limiting its flexibility to plan for, or react to, changes in its business and industry;
limiting its ability to fund future development activities or engage in future acquisitions; and
placing it at a competitive disadvantage compared to competitors that have less debt and/or fewer financial commitments.
The Company's ability to obtain additional financing is also affected by the Company's debt credit ratings and competition for available debt financing. A ratings downgrade could materially and adversely impact the Company's ability to access debt markets, increase the borrowing cost under the Company's credit facility and the cost of future debt and potentially require the Company to post letters of credit or other forms of collateral for certain obligations.
See "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Capital Commitments, Capital Resources and Liquidity" and Note 7 and Note 10 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
The Company's ability to declare and pay dividends and repurchase shares is subject to certain considerations.
Dividends are authorized and determined by the Company's board of directors in its sole discretion, and the repurchase of shares pursuant to the Company's stock repurchase program are made from time to time based on management's discretion. Decisions regarding the payment of dividends and the repurchase of shares are subject to a number of considerations, including:
cash available for distribution;
the Company's results of operations and anticipated future results of operations;
the Company's financial condition, especially in relation to the anticipated future capital needs;
the level of cash reserves the Company may establish to fund future capital expenditures;
the Company's stock price; and
other factors the board of directors deems relevant.

30

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

The Company can provide no assurance that it will continue to pay dividends or authorize share repurchases at the current rate or at all. Any elimination of or downward revision in the Company's dividend payout or stock repurchase program could have a material adverse effect on the market price of the Company's common stock.
The Company's business could be materially and adversely affected by security threats, including cybersecurity threats, and other disruptions.
As an oil and gas producer, the Company faces various security threats, including cybersecurity threats to gain unauthorized access to, or control of, sensitive information or to render data or systems corrupted or unusable; threats to the security of the Company's facilities and infrastructure or third party facilities and infrastructure, such as processing plants and pipelines; and threats from terrorist acts. The potential for such security threats has subjected the Company's operations to increased risks that could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business. In particular, the Company's implementation of various procedures and controls to monitor and mitigate security threats and to increase security for the Company's information, facilities and infrastructure may result in increased capital and operating costs. Costs for insurance may also increase as a result of security threats, and some insurance coverage may become more difficult to obtain, if available at all. Moreover, there can be no assurance that such procedures and controls will be sufficient to prevent security breaches from occurring. If any of these security breaches were to occur, they could lead to losses of sensitive information, critical infrastructure or capabilities essential to the Company's operations and could have a material adverse effect on the Company's reputation, financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Cybersecurity attacks in particular are becoming more sophisticated. The Company relies extensively on information technology systems, including internet sites, computer software, data hosting facilities and other hardware and platforms, some of which are hosted by third parties, to assist in conducting its business. The Company's technologies systems and networks, and those of its business associates may become the target of cybersecurity attacks, including without limitation denial-of-service attacks, malicious software, data privacy breaches by employees, insiders or others with authorized access, cyber or phishing-attacks, ransomeware, attempts to gain unauthorized access to data and systems, and other electronic security breaches that could lead to disruptions in critical systems and materially and adversely affect the Company in a variety of ways, including the following:
unauthorized access to and release of seismic data, reserves information, strategic information or other sensitive or proprietary information, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's ability to compete for oil and gas resources;
data corruption, communication interruption, or other operational disruptions during drilling activities, which could result in the failure to reach the intended target or a drilling incident;
data corruption or operational disruptions of production infrastructure, which could result in loss of production or accidental discharges;
unauthorized access to and release of personal information of royalty owners, employees and vendors, which could expose the Company to allegations that it did not sufficiently protect that information;
a cybersecurity attack on a vendor or service provider, which could result in supply chain disruptions and could delay or halt operations;
a cybersecurity attack on third-party gathering, transportation, processing, fractionation, refining or export facilities, which could delay or prevent the Company from transporting and marketing its production, resulting in a loss of revenues;
a cybersecurity attack on a communications network or power grid, which could cause operational disruptions resulting in the loss of revenues; and
a cybersecurity attack on the Company's automated and surveillance systems, which could cause a loss in production and potential environmental hazards.
These events could damage the Company's reputation and lead to financial losses from remedial actions, loss of business or potential liability. Additionally, certain cyber incidents, such as surveillance, may remain undetected for an extended period of time.
As cyber threats continue to evolve, the Company may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance its protective measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities. Additionally, the continuing and evolving threat of cybersecurity attacks has resulted in evolving legal and compliance matters, including increased regulatory focus on prevention, which could require the Company to expend significant additional resources to meet such requirements.
Provisions of the Company's charter documents and Delaware law may inhibit a takeover, which could limit the price investors might be willing to pay in the future for the Company's common stock.
Provisions in the Company's certificate of incorporation and bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing an acquisition of the Company or a merger in which the Company is not the surviving company and may otherwise prevent or slow

31

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

changes in the Company's board of directors and management. In addition, because the Company is incorporated in Delaware, it is governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. These provisions could discourage an acquisition of the Company or other change in control transactions and thereby negatively affect the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for the Company's common stock.
The Company periodically evaluates its goodwill for impairment and could be required to recognize noncash charges in the earnings of future periods.
At December 31, 2018, the Company had a carrying value for goodwill of $264 million. Goodwill is assessed for impairment annually during the third quarter and whenever facts or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the Company's goodwill may be impaired, which may require an estimate of the fair values of the reporting unit's assets and liabilities. Those assessments may be affected by (i) positive or negative reserve adjustments, (ii) results of drilling activities, (iii) management's outlook for commodity prices and costs and expenses, (iv) changes in the Company's market capitalization, (v) changes in the Company's weighted average cost of capital and (vi) changes in income taxes. If the fair value of the reporting unit's net assets is not sufficient to fully support the goodwill balance in the future, the Company will reduce the carrying value of goodwill for the impaired value, with a corresponding noncash charge to earnings in the period in which goodwill is determined to be impaired.
The Company's sand mining operations are subject to operating risks that are often beyond the Company's control, and such risks may not be covered by insurance.
Ownership of industrial sand mining operations is subject to risks, many of which are beyond the Company's control. These risks include:
unusual or unexpected geological formations or pressures;
cave-ins, pit wall failures or rock falls;
unanticipated ground, grade or water conditions;
inclement or hazardous weather conditions, including flooding, and the physical impacts of climate change;
environmental hazards, such as unauthorized spills, releases and discharges of wastes, vessel ruptures and emission of unpermitted levels of pollutants;
changes in laws and regulations;
inability to acquire or maintain necessary permits or mining or water rights;
restrictions on blasting operations;
inability to obtain necessary production equipment or replacement parts;
reduction in the amount of water available for processing;
technical difficulties or failures;
labor disputes;
late delivery of supplies;
fires, explosions or other accidents; and
facility interruptions or shutdowns in response to environmental regulatory actions.
Any of these risks could result in damage to, or destruction of, the Company's mining properties or production facilities, personal injury, environmental damage, delays in mining or processing, losses or possible legal liability. Not all of these risks are insurable, and the Company's insurance coverage contains limits, deductibles, exclusions and endorsements. The Company's insurance coverage may not be sufficient to meet its needs in the event of loss and any such loss may have an adverse effect on the Company.
The Company's sand mining operations are subject to extensive environmental and occupational health and safety regulations that impose significant costs and potential liabilities.
The Company's sand mining operations are subject to a variety of federal, state and local environmental requirements affecting the mining and mineral processing industry, including, among others, those relating to:
employee health and safety;
permitting and licensing;
air emissions and water discharges, GHG emissions, water pollution, waste management and disposal, remediation of soil and groundwater contamination;
land use restrictions;
reclamation and restoration of properties; and
wastes, hazardous substances and other regulated materials and natural resources.

32

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

Sand mining operations require numerous governmental, mining and other permits and water rights and approvals authorizing operations at each sand mining facility, and are subject to extensive regulation on matters such as permitting and licensing requirements, reclamation and restoration of mining properties after mining is completed, and the effects that mining have on groundwater quality and availability. Obtaining or renewing required permits or approvals may be delayed or prevented due to opposition by neighboring property owners, members of the public or other third parties and other factors beyond the Company's control. Moreover, issuance of any permits, permit renewals or other approvals by governmental agencies may be conditioned on new or modified requirements or procedures with respect to mining that may be costly or time-consuming to implement. A decision by a governmental agency or other third party to deny or delay issuing a new or renewed permit or approval, or to revoke or substantially modify an existing permit or approval, could have an adverse effect on the Company's sand mining operations at the affected facility.
Some environmental laws impose substantial penalties for noncompliance, and others, such as the CERCLA, impose strict, retroactive and joint and several liability for the remediation of releases of hazardous substances. Failure to properly handle, transport, store or dispose of wastes, hazardous substances and other regulated materials or otherwise conduct the Company's sand mining operations in compliance with environmental and occupational health and safety laws could expose the Company to liability for governmental penalties, cleanup costs and civil or criminal liability associated with releases of such materials into the environment, damages to property or natural resources and other damages, and exposure of workers or other persons to petroleum hydrocarbons, wastes or hazardous substances, as well as potentially impair the Company's ability to conduct its sand mining operations. The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, as amended by the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006, which imposes stringent health and safety standards on numerous aspects of mineral extraction and processing operations, including the training of personnel, operating procedures, operating equipment and other matters.
Furthermore, laws and regulations are subject to amendment, replacement or re-interpretation by more stringent and comprehensive legal requirements. While the Company's environmental compliance costs under existing laws and regulations with respect to its sand mining operations have not historically had a material adverse effect on its results of operations, there can be no assurance that such costs will not be material in the future. Future compliance costs also may be incurred by the Company in connection increased governmental standards or permissible exposure limits for worker health and safety that are imposed in the future for added protection of workers from exposure to pollutants including crystalline silica dust. Moreover, such future environmental and occupational health and safety compliance with existing, new or amended laws and regulations could restrict the Company's ability to expand its facilities or extract mineral deposits or could require the Company to acquire costly equipment or to incur other significant expenses in connection with its sand mining operations or reclamation thereof, which restrictions, costs or expenses could have an adverse effect on the Company's sand mining operations.
Any failure by the Company to comply with applicable laws and regulations in connection with its sand mining operations may cause governmental authorities to take actions that could adversely affect the Company, including:
issuance of administrative, civil and criminal penalties;
denial, modification or revocation of permits or other authorizations;
imposition of injunctive obligations or other limitations on the Company's operations, including interruptions or cessation of operations;
obligations to install new or improved controls or provide additional personal protective equipment to mitigate exposure to pollutants such as crystalline silica dust; and
requirements to perform site investigatory, remedial or other corrective actions.
The Company's sand mining operations and hydraulic fracturing may result in silica-related health issues and litigation that could have a material adverse effect on the Company.
The inhalation of respirable crystalline silica dust is associated with the lung disease silicosis. There is evidence of an association between crystalline silica exposure or silicosis and lung cancer and a possible association with other diseases, including immune system disorders, such as scleroderma. These health risks have been, and may continue to be, a significant issue confronting the commercial sand industry. The actual or perceived health risks of mining, processing and handling sand could materially and adversely affect the Company through the threat of product liability or personal injury lawsuits, recently adopted OSHA silica regulations and increased scrutiny by federal, state and local regulatory authorities.
Pioneer Sands LLC ("Pioneer Sands"), the Company's wholly-owned sand mining subsidiary, is named as a defendant, usually among many defendants, in numerous products liability lawsuits brought by or on behalf of current or former employees of Pioneer Sands or its commercial customers alleging damages caused by silica exposure. As of December 31, 2018, Pioneer Sands was the subject of silica exposure claims from 16 plaintiffs. Almost all of the claims pending against Pioneer Sands arise out of the alleged use of Pioneer Sands' sand products in foundries or as an abrasive blast media and have been filed in the states of Texas, Mississippi and Alabama, although some cases have been brought in other jurisdictions over the years.

33

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

It is possible that Pioneer Sands will have additional silica-related claims filed against it, including claims that allege silica exposure for periods for which there is not insurance coverage. In addition, it is possible that similar claims could be asserted arising out of the Company's other operations, including its hydraulic fracturing operations. Any pending or future claims or inadequacies of insurance coverage or contractual indemnification could have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations.
ITEM 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None. 
ITEM 2.
PROPERTIES
Reserve Estimation Procedures and Audits
The information included in this Report about the Company's proved reserves as of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 is based on evaluations prepared by the Company's engineers and audited by Netherland, Sewell & Associates, Inc. ("NSAI"), with respect to the Company's major properties. The Company has no oil and gas reserves from non-traditional sources. Additionally, the Company does not provide optional disclosure of probable or possible reserves.
Reserve estimation procedures. The Company has established internal controls over reserve estimation processes and procedures to support the accurate and timely preparation and disclosure of reserve estimates in accordance with SEC requirements. These controls include oversight of the reserves estimation reporting processes by Pioneer's Corporate Reserves Group ("Corporate Reserves"), and annual external audits of substantial portions of the Company's proved reserves by NSAI.
Corporate Reserves is responsible for the management of the oil and gas proved reserve estimation processes in each of the Company's asset areas. Corporate Reserves is staffed with reservoir engineers and geoscientists who prepare reserve estimates at the end of each calendar quarter for the assets that they manage, using reservoir engineering information technology. There is oversight of the reservoir engineers by the Director of Corporate Reserves and the Vice President of Corporate Reserves, each of whom is in turn subject to direct or indirect oversight by the Company's management committee ("MC"). The Company's MC is comprised of its Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer and other executive officers. The reserve estimates are prepared by reservoir engineers before being submitted to the Director and Vice President of Corporate Reserves for further review.
The reserve estimates are summarized in reserve reconciliations that quantify reserve changes since the previous year end as revisions of previous estimates, purchases of minerals-in-place, improved recovery, extensions and discoveries, production and sales of minerals-in-place. All reserve estimates, material assumptions and inputs used in reserve estimates and significant changes in reserve estimates are reviewed for engineering and financial appropriateness and compliance with SEC and GAAP standards by Corporate Reserves, in consultation with the Company's accounting and financial management personnel. Annually, the MC reviews the reserve estimates and any differences with the reserve auditors (for the portion of the reserves audited by NSAI) on a consolidated basis before these estimates are approved. The engineers and geoscientists who participate in the reserve estimation and disclosure process periodically attend training provided by external consultants and through internal Pioneer programs. Additionally, Corporate Reserves has prepared and maintains written policies and guidelines for its staff to reference on reserve estimation and preparation to promote consistency in the preparation of the Company's reserve estimates and compliance with the SEC reserve estimation and reporting rules.
Proved reserves audits. The proved reserve audits performed by NSAI for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, in the aggregate, represented 79 percent, 77 percent and 77 percent of the Company's year-end 2018, 2017 and 2016 proved reserves, respectively; and 95 percent, 91 percent and 93 percent of the Company's year-end 2018, 2017 and 2016 associated pre-tax present value of proved reserves discounted at ten percent, respectively.
NSAI follows the general principles set forth in the "Standards Pertaining to the Estimating and Auditing of Oil and Gas Reserve Information" promulgated by the Society of Petroleum Engineers (the "SPE"). A reserve audit as defined by the SPE is not the same as a financial audit. The SPE's definition of a reserve audit includes the following concepts:
A reserve audit is an examination of reserve information that is conducted for the purpose of expressing an opinion as to whether such reserve information, in the aggregate, is reasonable and has been presented in conformity with the 2007 SPE publication entitled "Standards Pertaining to the Estimating and Auditing of Oil and Gas Reserves Information."

34

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

The estimation of reserves is an imprecise science due to the many unknown geologic and reservoir factors that cannot be estimated through sampling techniques. Since reserves are only estimates, they cannot be audited for the purpose of verifying exactness. Instead, reserve information is audited for the purpose of reviewing in sufficient detail the policies, procedures and methods used by a company in estimating its reserves so that the reserve auditors may express an opinion as to whether, in the aggregate, the reserve information furnished by a company is reasonable.
The methods and procedures used by a company, and the reserve information furnished by a company, must be reviewed in sufficient detail to permit the reserve auditor, in its professional judgment, to express an opinion as to the reasonableness of the reserve information. The auditing procedures require the reserve auditor to prepare their own estimates of reserve information for the audited properties.
In conjunction with the audit of the Company's proved reserves and associated pre-tax present value discounted at ten percent, Pioneer provided to NSAI its external and internal engineering and geoscience technical data and analyses. Following NSAI's review of that data, it had the option of honoring Pioneer's interpretations, or making its own interpretations. No data was withheld from NSAI. NSAI accepted without independent verification the accuracy and completeness of the historical information and data furnished by Pioneer with respect to ownership interest, oil and gas production, well test data, commodity prices, operating and development costs, and any agreements relating to current and future operations of the properties and sales of production. However, if in the course of its evaluations something came to its attention that brought into question the validity or sufficiency of any such information or data, NSAI did not rely on such information or data until it had satisfactorily resolved its questions relating thereto or had independently verified such information or data.
In the course of its evaluations, NSAI prepared, for all of the audited properties, its own estimates of the Company's proved reserves and the pre-tax present values of such reserves discounted at ten percent. NSAI reviewed its audit differences with the Company, and, in a number of cases, held meetings with the Company to review additional reserves work performed by the Company's technical teams and any updated performance data related to the proved reserve differences. Such data was incorporated, as appropriate, by both parties into the proved reserve estimates. NSAI's estimates, including any adjustments resulting from additional data, of those proved reserves and the pre-tax present value of such reserves discounted at ten percent did not differ from Pioneer's estimates by more than ten percent in the aggregate. However, when compared on a lease-by-lease, field-by-field or area-by-area basis, some of the Company's estimates were greater than those of the reserve auditors and some were less than the estimates of the reserve auditors. When such differences do not exceed ten percent in the aggregate and NSAI is satisfied that the proved reserves and pre-tax present values of such reserves discounted at ten percent are reasonable and that its audit objectives have been met, NSAI will issue an unqualified audit opinion. Remaining differences are not resolved due to the limited cost benefit of continuing such analyses by the Company and the reserve auditors. At the conclusion of the audit process, it was NSAI's opinion, as set forth in its audit letter, which is included as an exhibit to this Report, that Pioneer's estimates of the Company's proved oil and gas reserves and associated pre-tax present values discounted at ten percent are, in the aggregate, reasonable and have been prepared in accordance with the "Standards Pertaining to the Estimating and Auditing of Oil and Gas Reserves Information."
Qualifications of proved reserves preparers and auditors. Corporate Reserves is staffed by petroleum engineers with extensive industry experience and is managed by the Vice President of Corporate Reserves, the technical person who is primarily responsible for overseeing the Company's reserves estimates. These individuals meet the professional qualifications of reserves estimators and reserves auditors as defined by the "Standards Pertaining to the Estimating and Auditing of Oil and Gas Reserves Information." The qualifications of the Vice President of Corporate Reserves include 41 years of experience as a petroleum engineer, with 34 years focused on reserves reporting for independent oil and gas companies, including Pioneer. His educational background includes an undergraduate degree in Chemical Engineering and a Masters of Business Administration degree in Finance. He is also a Chartered Financial Analyst Charterholder.
NSAI provides worldwide petroleum property analysis services for energy clients, financial organizations and government agencies. NSAI was founded in 1961 and performs consulting petroleum engineering services under Texas Board of Professional Engineers Registration No. F-2699. The technical person primarily responsible for auditing the Company's reserves estimates has been a practicing consulting petroleum engineer at NSAI since 1983 and has over 40 years of practical experience in petroleum engineering, including over 37 years of experience in the estimation and evaluation of proved reserves. He graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemical Engineering in 1978 and meets or exceeds the education, training and experience requirements set forth in the "Standards Pertaining to the Estimating and Auditing of Oil and Gas Reserves Information."
Technologies used in proved reserves estimates. Proved undeveloped reserves include those reserves that are expected to be recovered from new wells on undrilled acreage, or from existing wells where a relatively major expenditure is required for completion. Undeveloped reserves may be classified as proved reserves on undrilled acreage directly offsetting development areas that are reasonably certain of production when drilled, or where reliable technology provides reasonable certainty of economic producibility. Undrilled locations may be classified as having undeveloped proved reserves only if an ability and intent has been established to drill the reserves within five years, unless specific circumstances justify a longer time period.

35

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

In the context of reserves estimations, reasonable certainty means a high degree of confidence that the quantities will be recovered and reliable technology means a grouping of one or more technologies (including computational methods) that has been field-tested and has been demonstrated to provide reasonable certainty that the results will be consistent and repeatable in the formation being evaluated or in an analogous formation. In estimating proved reserves, the Company uses several different traditional methods such as performance-based methods, volumetric-based methods and analogy with similar properties. In addition, the Company utilizes additional technical analysis such as seismic interpretation, wireline formation tests, geophysical logs and core data to provide incremental support for more complex reservoirs. Information from this incremental support is combined with the traditional technologies outlined above to enhance the certainty of the Company's proved reserve estimates.
Proved Reserves
Oil and gas proved reserves, located entirely in the United States, are as follows:
 
Summary of Oil and Gas Proved Reserves as of Fiscal Year-End
Based on Average Fiscal-Year Prices
 
Proved Reserve Volumes
 
Oil
(MBbls)
 
NGLs
(MBbls)
 
Gas
(MMcf) (a)
 
Total (MBOE)
 
%
As of December 31, 2018:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Developed
521,579

 
219,730

 
1,330,852

 
963,118

 
92
%
Undeveloped
43,431

 
21,184

 
127,722

 
85,902

 
8
%
Total proved reserves
565,010

 
240,914

 
1,458,574

 
1,049,020

 
100
%
As of December 31, 2017:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Developed
442,364

 
189,434

 
1,629,451

 
903,373

 
92
%
Undeveloped
40,525

 
21,063

 
122,429

 
81,993

 
8
%
Total proved reserves
482,889

 
210,497

 
1,751,880

 
985,366

 
100
%
As of December 31, 2016:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Developed
343,515

 
126,928

 
1,215,861

 
673,085

 
93
%
Undeveloped
34,681

 
10,013

 
48,868

 
52,840

 
7
%
Total proved reserves
378,196

 
136,941

 
1,264,729

 
725,925

 
100
%
 _____________________
(a)
Total proved gas reserves contain 106,948 MMcf, 171,623 MMcf and 137,853 MMcf of gas that the Company expected to be produced and used as field fuel (primarily for compressors), rather than being delivered to a sales point as of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
The Company's Standardized Measure of total proved reserves are as follows:
 
As of December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(in millions)
Proved developed reserves
$
10,694

 
$
7,708

 
$
4,012

Proved undeveloped reserves
639

 
443

 
178

Total proved reserves (a)
$
11,333

 
$
8,151

 
$
4,190

_____________________
(a)
The Standardized Measure of total proved reserves as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 includes the reduction of the federal corporate income tax rate to 21 percent associated with the enactment of the Tax Cut and Jobs Act.
See "Unaudited Supplementary Information" included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.

36

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

Description of Properties
Development drilling activity by significant asset area is as follows:
 
Year Ended December 31, 2018
 
Permian Basin
 
Total Company
Beginning wells in progress
14

 
14

Wells spud
38

 
38

Successful wells
(35
)
 
(35
)
Unsuccessful wells
(1
)
 
(1
)
Ending wells in progress
16

 
16

Exploration/extension drilling activity by significant asset area is as follows:
 
Year Ended December 31, 2018
 
Permian Basin
 
Total Company
Beginning wells in progress
125

 
136

Wells spud
289

 
292

Successful wells
(250
)
 
(251
)
Unsuccessful wells
(1
)
 
(10
)
Wells sold

 
(1
)
Ending wells in progress
163

 
166

Average daily oil, NGLs, gas and total production by significant asset area are as follows:
 
Year Ended December 31, 2018
 
Permian Basin
 
Total Company
Oil (Bbls)
181,402

 
190,639

NGLs (Bbls)
54,459

 
63,780

Gas (Mcf) (a)
282,010

 
393,391

Total (BOE)
282,862

 
319,984

_____________________
(a)
Gas production excludes gas produced and used as field fuel.
Costs incurred by significant asset area are as follows:
 
Year Ended December 31, 2018
 
Permian Basin
 
Total Company
 
(in millions)
Property acquisition costs:
 
 
 
Proved
$
1

 
$
1

Unproved
64

 
64

Exploration costs
2,642

 
2,653

Development costs
911

 
933

Asset retirement obligations
21

 
17

Total
$
3,639

 
$
3,668


37

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

Permian Basin. With approximately 760,000 gross acres (680,000 net acres), Pioneer is the largest acreage holder in the Spraberry/Wolfcamp field, which the U.S. Geological Survey ("USGS") estimates is the largest continuous oil field in the United States. Pioneer's interests in the northern portion of the play comprise approximately 560,000 gross acres and its interests in the southern portion of the play, where the Company has a joint venture with Sinochem, comprise approximately 200,000 gross acres. The oil produced from the Spraberry/Wolfcamp field is West Texas Intermediate Sweet, and the gas produced is casinghead gas with an average energy content of 1,400 Btu. The oil and gas are produced primarily from six formations, the Spraberry, the Jo Mill, the Dean, the Wolfcamp, the Strawn and the Atoka, at depths ranging from 7,500 feet to 14,000 feet. The Company believes that it has significant resource potential within its Spraberry, Jo Mill and Wolfcamp formation acreage, based on its extensive geologic data covering the Jo Mill, Lower Spraberry and Middle Spraberry intervals and the Wolfcamp A, B, C and D intervals and its drilling results to date.
During 2018, the Company successfully completed 221 horizontal wells in the northern portion of the play and 64 horizontal wells in the southern portion of the play. In the northern portion of the play, approximately 40 percent of the horizontal wells placed on production were Wolfcamp B interval wells, approximately 45 percent were Wolfcamp A interval wells and approximately 15 percent were Spraberry interval wells. The majority of the wells placed on production in the southern portion of the play were Wolfcamp B interval wells. In addition, the Company continues to complete acreage trades that allow the Company to drill wells with longer laterals, improving the expected returns of the wells. The Company estimates that the acreage trades completed in 2018 added approximately 4.6 million lateral feet to the Company's drilling inventory.
The Company plans to operate 21 to 23 rigs in the Spraberry/Wolfcamp field in 2019, with 16 to 18 rigs operating in the northern portion of the play and five rigs operating in the southern portion of the play. During 2019, the Company expects to place on production between 265 and 290 horizontal wells. Approximately 45 percent of the horizontal wells are planned to be drilled in the Wolfcamp B interval, 35 percent in the Wolfcamp A interval and the remaining 20 percent will be a combination of wells in the Spraberry intervals and a limited appraisal program for the Wolfcamp D interval.
Selected Oil and Gas Information
Production, price and cost data. The price that the Company receives for the oil and gas it produces is largely a function of market supply and demand. Demand is affected by general economic conditions, weather and other seasonal conditions, including hurricanes and tropical storms. Over or under supply of oil or gas can result in substantial price volatility. Historically, commodity prices have been volatile and the Company expects that volatility to continue in the future. A decline in oil, NGL and gas prices or poor drilling results could have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial position, results of operations, cash flows, quantities of oil and gas reserves that may be economically produced and the Company's ability to access the capital markets.
The following tables set forth production, price and cost data with respect to the Company's properties. These amounts represent the Company's historical results of operations without making pro forma adjustments for any acquisitions, divestitures or drilling activity that occurred during the respective years. The production amounts will not match the proved reserve volume tables in the "Unaudited Supplementary Information" section included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" because field fuel volumes are included in the proved reserve volume tables. Because of normal production declines, increased or decreased drilling activities and the effects of acquisitions or divestitures, the historical information presented below should not be interpreted as being indicative of future results.

38

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

PRODUCTION, PRICE AND COST DATA
 
Year Ended December 31, 2018
 
Permian Basin
 
Total Company
Production information
 
 
 
Annual sales volumes:
 
 
 
Oil (MBbls)
66,212

 
69,583

NGLs (MBbls)
19,878

 
23,280

Gas (MMcf)
102,934

 
143,588

Total (MBOE)
103,245

 
116,794

Average daily sales volumes:
 
 
 
Oil (Bbls)
181,402

 
190,639

NGLs (Bbls)
54,459

 
63,780

Gas (Mcf)
282,010

 
393,391

Total (BOE)
282,862

 
319,984

Average prices:
 
 
 
Oil (per Bbl)
$
57.13

 
$
57.36

NGL (per Bbl)
$
30.32

 
$
29.84

Gas (per Mcf)
$
1.90

 
$
2.13

Revenue (per BOE)
$
44.37

 
$
42.73

Average costs (per BOE):
 
 
 
Production costs:
 
 
 
Lease operating
$
4.27

 
$
4.29

Third-party transportation charges
2.21

 
2.52

Net natural gas plant/gathering
(0.67
)
 
(0.41
)
Workover
1.01

 
0.92

Total
$
6.82

 
$
7.32

Production and ad valorem taxes:
 
 
 
Ad valorem
$
0.59

 
$
0.60

Production
1.94

 
1.83

Total
$
2.53

 
$
2.43

Depletion expense
$
13.42

 
$
12.52




39

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

PRODUCTION, PRICE AND COST DATA - (continued)
 
Year Ended December 31, 2017
 
Permian Basin
 
Total Company
Production information
 
 
 
Annual sales volumes:
 
 
 
Oil (MBbls)
53,889

 
57,878

NGLs (MBbls)
16,096

 
20,078

Gas (MMcf)
71,140

 
128,665

Total (MBOE)
81,842

 
99,401

Average daily sales volumes:
 
 
 
Oil (Bbls)
147,641

 
158,571

NGLs (Bbls)
44,099

 
55,008

Gas (Mcf)
194,904

 
352,507

Total (BOE)
224,224

 
272,330

Average prices:
 
 
 
Oil (per Bbl)
$
48.32

 
$
48.24

NGL (per Bbl)
$
18.69

 
$
19.31

Gas (per Mcf)
$
2.45

 
$
2.63

Revenue (per BOE)
$
37.62

 
$
35.39

Average costs (per BOE):
 
 
 
Production costs:
 
 
 
Lease operating
$
4.36

 
$
4.58

Third-party transportation charges
0.19

 
0.85

Net natural gas plant/gathering
(0.63
)
 
(0.28
)
Workover
0.87

 
0.80

Total
$
4.79

 
$
5.95

Production and ad valorem taxes:
 
 
 
Ad valorem
$
0.58

 
$
0.57

Production
1.81

 
1.59

Total
$
2.39

 
$
2.16

Depletion expense
$
15.34

 
$
13.61


40

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

PRODUCTION, PRICE AND COST DATA - (continued)
 
Year Ended December 31, 2016
 
Permian Basin
 
Total Company
Production information
 
 
 
Annual sales volumes:
 
 
 
Oil (MBbls)
43,049

 
48,926

NGLs (MBbls)
10,886

 
15,922

Gas (MMcf)
51,528

 
124,428

Total (MBOE)
62,523

 
85,586

Average daily sales volumes:
 
 
 
Oil (Bbls)
117,619

 
133,677

NGLs (Bbls)
29,743

 
43,504

Gas (Mcf)
140,788

 
339,966

Total (BOE)
170,827

 
233,842

Average prices:
 
 
 
Oil (per Bbl)
$
40.30

 
$
39.65

NGL (per Bbl)
$
13.48

 
$
13.49

Gas (per Mcf)
$
2.11

 
$
2.11

Revenue (per BOE)
$
31.84

 
$
28.25

Average costs (per BOE):
 
 
 
Production costs:
 
 
 
Lease operating
$
5.35

 
$
5.02

Third-party transportation charges
0.20

 
1.41

Net natural gas plant/gathering
(0.43
)
 
0.01

Workover
0.35

 
0.35

Total
$
5.47

 
$
6.79

Production and ad valorem taxes:
 
 
 
Ad valorem
$
0.50

 
$
0.46

Production
1.44

 
1.14

Total
$
1.94

 
$
1.60

Depletion expense
$
19.62

 
$
16.77


41

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

Productive wells. Productive wells consist of producing wells and wells capable of production, including shut-in wells and gas wells awaiting pipeline connections to commence deliveries and oil wells awaiting connection to production facilities. One or more completions in the same well bore are counted as one well. Any well in which one of the multiple completions is an oil completion is classified as an oil well.
Productive oil and gas wells attributable to the Company's properties are as follows:
PRODUCTIVE WELLS
As of December 31, 2018
Gross Productive Wells
 
Net Productive Wells
Oil
 
Gas
 
Total
 
Oil
 
Gas
 
Total
7,454

 
694

 
8,148

 
6,568

 
371

 
6,939

Developed, undeveloped and royalty leasehold acreage is as follows:
LEASEHOLD ACREAGE
As of December 31, 2018
Developed Acreage
 
Undeveloped Acreage
 
Royalty Acreage
Gross Acres
 
Net Acres
 
Gross Acres
 
Net Acres
 
884,713

 
736,546

 
42,913

 
35,225

 
106,143

The expiration dates of the leases attributable to gross and net undeveloped acres are as follows:
 
As of December 31, 2018
 
Acres Expiring (a)
 
Gross
 
Net
2019
21,739

 
19,399

2020
4,565

 
2,329

2021
1,517

 
285

2022
2,004

 
1,636

2023
5,592

 
5,333

Thereafter
7,496

 
6,243

 
42,913

 
35,225

 _____________________
(a)
Acres expiring are based on contractual lease maturities.
Of the 21,728 net acres expiring in 2019 and 2020, 20,254 net acres are concentrated in the Permian Basin in West Texas, where the Company has an active drilling program and ongoing efforts to extend leases that may not be drilled prior to expiration. The Company currently has no proved undeveloped reserve locations scheduled to be drilled after lease expiration. The remaining 1,474 net acres are concentrated in eastern Colorado. The Company has no drilling plans for this acreage and does not have any undeveloped acreage costs recorded as of December 31, 2018 associated with this acreage.
Drilling and other exploratory and development activities. The following table sets forth the number of gross and net wells drilled by the Company that were productive or dry holes. This information should not be considered indicative of future performance, nor should it be assumed that there was any correlation between the number of productive wells drilled and the oil and gas reserves generated thereby or the costs to the Company of productive wells compared to the costs of dry holes.

42

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

DRILLING ACTIVITIES
 
Gross Wells
 
Net Wells
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Productive wells:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Development
35

 
26

 
39

 
23

 
20

 
32

Exploratory
251

 
222

 
215

 
226

 
198

 
194

Dry holes:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Development
1

 

 

 
1

 

 

Exploratory
10

 
2

 

 
6

 
1

 

 
297

 
250

 
254

 
256

 
219

 
226

Success ratio (a)
96
%
 
99
%
 
100
%
 
97
%
 
99
%
 
100
%
 ______________________
(a)
Represents the ratio of those wells that were successfully completed as producing wells or wells capable of producing to total wells drilled and evaluated.
Wells in process of being drilled are as follows:
 
As of December 31, 2018
 
Gross Wells
 
Net Wells
Development
16

 
10

Exploratory
166

 
152

 
182

 
162

ITEM 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The Company is party to various proceedings and claims incidental to its business. While many of these matters involve inherent uncertainty, the Company believes that the amount of the liability, if any, ultimately incurred with respect to these proceedings and claims will not have a material adverse effect on the Company's consolidated financial position as a whole or on its liquidity, capital resources or future annual results of operations. See Note 10 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
ITEM 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
The Company's sand mines are subject to regulation by the Federal Mine Safety and Health Administration under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, as amended by the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006. Information concerning mine safety violations or other regulatory matters required by Section 1503(a) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and Item 104 of Regulation S-K is included in Exhibit 95.1 to this Annual Report filed on Form 10-K.

43

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
The following table sets forth certain information as of the date of this Report regarding the Company's executive officers. All of the Company's executive officers serve at the discretion of the Company's board of directors. There are no family relationships among any of the Company's directors or executive officers.
Name
 
Position
 
Age
Scott D. Sheffield
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
 
66
Mark S. Berg
 
Executive Vice President, Corporate/Vertically Integrated Operations
 
60
Chris J. Cheatwood
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer
 
58
Richard P. Dealy
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
 
52
J.D. Hall
 
Executive Vice President, Permian Operations
 
53
Kenneth H. Sheffield, Jr.
 
Executive Vice President, Operations/Engineering/Facilities
 
58
William F. Hannes
 
Senior Vice President, Special Projects
 
59
Mark H. Kleinman
 
Senior Vice President and General Counsel
 
57
Teresa A. Fairbrook
 
Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer
 
45
Margaret M. Montemayor
 
Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer
 
41
Neal H. Shah
 
Vice President, Investor Relations
 
48
Stephanie D. Stewart
 
Vice President and Chief Information Officer
 
50
Scott D. Sheffield
Mr. Sheffield was appointed Company's President and Chief Executive Officer in February 2019. Previously, he had served as Chief Executive Officer of the Company from 1997 through December 31, 2016, and then as the Executive Chairman until December 31, 2017. He has served as a director of the Company since 1997 and had served as Chairman of the Board from 1999 through February 2019. Mr. Sheffield was the Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer of Parker & Parsley Petroleum Company, a predecessor of the Company (together with its predecessor companies, "Parker & Parsley"), from January 1989 until the Company was formed in August 1997. Mr. Sheffield joined Parker & Parsley as a petroleum engineer in 1979, was promoted to Vice President - Engineering in September 1981, was elected President and a Director in April 1985, and became Parker & Parsley's Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer on January 19, 1989. Before joining Parker & Parsley, Mr. Sheffield was employed as a production and reservoir engineer for Amoco Production Company. He had also served as Chief Executive Officer and director from June 2007, and as Chairman of the Board from May 2008, of the general partner of Pioneer Southwest Energy Partners L.P. ("Pioneer Southwest") through December 2013. Mr. Sheffield is a distinguished graduate of the University of Texas with a Bachelor of Science degree in Petroleum Engineering.
Mark S. Berg
Mr. Berg was elected as the Company's Executive Vice President and General Counsel in April 2005, serving in those capacities until January 2014, at which time he assumed broader executive responsibilities, most recently being elected to serve as Executive Vice President, Corporate/Vertically Integrated Operations in May 2017. Mr. Berg had previously served as Executive Vice President, Corporate/Operations since August 2015 and Executive Vice President and General Counsel of the general partner of Pioneer Southwest from June 2007 through the Company's acquisition of Pioneer Southwest in December 2013. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Berg served as Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of American General Corporation, a Fortune 200 diversified financial services company, from 1997 through 2002. Subsequent to the sale of American General to American International Group, Inc., Mr. Berg joined Hanover Compressor Company as Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary. He served in that capacity from May 2002 through April 2004. Mr. Berg began his career in 1983 with the Houston-based law firm of Vinson & Elkins L.L.P. He was a partner with the firm from 1990 through 1997. Mr. Berg is also a director of ProPetro Holding Corp. and HighPoint Resources Corporation. Mr. Berg graduated Magna Cum Laude and Phi Beta Kappa with a Bachelor of Arts degree from Tulane University in 1980. He earned his Juris Doctorate with honors from the University of Texas School of Law in 1983.
Chris J. Cheatwood
Mr. Cheatwood was elected as the Company's Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer in May 2017. Mr. Cheatwood had previously served as Executive Vice President, Business Development and Geoscience since November 2011, Executive Vice President, Business Development and Technology from February 2010 until November 2011, Executive Vice President, Geoscience from November 2007 until February 2010, Executive Vice President - Worldwide Exploration from January 2002 until November 2007, Senior Vice President - Worldwide Exploration from December 2000 to January 2002 and Vice

44

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

President - Domestic Exploration from July 1998 to December 2000. Mr. Cheatwood also served as an Executive Vice President of the general partner of Pioneer Southwest from June 2007 through the Company's acquisition of Pioneer Southwest in December 2013. Before joining the Company, Mr. Cheatwood spent ten years with Exxon Corporation. Mr. Cheatwood is a graduate of the University of Oklahoma with a Bachelor of Science degree in Geology and earned his Master of Science degree in Geology from the University of Tulsa.
Richard P. Dealy
Mr. Dealy was elected as the Company's Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer in November 2004. Mr. Dealy held positions for the Company as Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer from February 1998 to November 2004 and Vice President and Controller from August 1997 to January 1998. Mr. Dealy also served as Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer and Director of the general partner of Pioneer Southwest from June 2007 through the Company's acquisition of Pioneer Southwest in December 2013. Mr. Dealy joined Parker & Parsley in July 1992 and was promoted to Vice President and Controller in 1996, in which position he served until August 1997. Before joining Parker & Parsley, Mr. Dealy was employed by KPMG LLP. Mr. Dealy graduated with honors from Eastern New Mexico University with a Bachelor of Business Administration degree in Accounting and Finance and is a Certified Public Accountant.
J. D. Hall
Mr. Hall was elected as the Company's Executive Vice President, Permian Operations, in August 2015. Mr. Hall had previously held positions for the Company as Executive Vice President, Southern Wolfcamp Operations from August 2014 to August 2015, Senior Vice President, South Texas Operations from June 2013 to August 2014, Vice President, South Texas Operations from February 2013 to June 2013, Vice President, South Texas Asset Team from September 2012 to February 2013 and Vice President, Eagle Ford Asset Team from January 2010 to September 2012. Prior to his positions in South Texas, he was the Operations Manager in Alaska from January 2005 to January 2010. He previously held several other positions with the Company, including managing offshore, onshore and international projects. He began his career with a predecessor company, MESA, Inc. ("MESA"), in 1989. He has a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from Texas Tech University and is a Registered Professional Engineer in Texas.
Kenneth H. Sheffield, Jr.
Mr. Sheffield was elected as the Company's Executive Vice President, Operations/Engineering/Facilities in May 2017. Mr. Sheffield had previously served the Company in a number of executive positions, including Executive Vice President, South Texas Asset Team, Western Asset Team and Corporate Engineering from August 2015 to May 2017, Executive Vice President, South Texas Operations from August 2014 to August 2015, Senior Vice President, Operations and Engineering from June 2013 to August 2014, Vice President, Corporate Engineering from November 2011 to June 2013 and President of the Company's Alaska subsidiary from September 2002 to November 2011. Mr. Sheffield joined MESA in June 1982 and held a number of supervisory and technical positions with MESA in the areas of drilling, production, reservoir engineering and acquisitions until being promoted to Vice President Acquisitions & Development in 1996. He is a graduate of Texas A&M University with a Bachelor of Science degree in Petroleum Engineering.
William F. Hannes
Mr. Hannes was elected as the Company's Senior Vice President, Special Projects in January 2017. Mr. Hannes had previously served the Company as Senior Vice President, Special Management Committee Advisor since August 2014, Executive Vice President, Southern Wolfcamp Operations from February 2013 until August 2014, Executive Vice President, South Texas Operations from February 2010 until February 2013, Executive Vice President, Business Development from December 2007 until February 2010, Executive Vice President, Worldwide Business Development from November 2005 until December 2007 and Vice President, Engineering and Development from September 2003 until November 2005. Mr. Hannes joined Parker & Parsley in July 1997 as Director of Business Development, and continued to serve the Company in this capacity after the Company's formation in August 1997 until he was promoted to Vice President - Engineering and Development in June 2001, which position he held until November 2005. Prior to joining Parker & Parsley, Mr. Hannes held engineering positions with Mobil Corporation and Superior Oil Company. Mr. Hannes earned his Bachelor of Science degree in Petroleum Engineering from Texas A&M University.
Mark H. Kleinman
Mr. Kleinman was elected as the Company's Senior Vice President and General Counsel in January 2014. He also held the positions of Corporate Secretary from June 2005 through August 2015, Vice President from May 2006 until January 2014 and Chief Compliance Officer from June 2005 until May 2013. Mr. Kleinman also served as Vice President and Secretary of the general partner of Pioneer Southwest from June 2007 until April 2008 and as its Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer from April

45

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

2008 through the Company's acquisition of Pioneer Southwest in December 2013. Mr. Kleinman earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Government from the University of Texas and graduated, with honors, from the University of Texas School of Law.
Teresa A. Fairbrook
Ms. Fairbrook was elected as the Company's Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer in March 2016, prior to which she had served as Vice President, Human Resources since February 2013. She joined the Company in 1999, serving in a number of positions in the Human Resources Department. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Fairbrook was in human resources at Dal-Tile Corporation in Dallas, Texas, where she held a variety of roles in employee relations, recruiting and benefits. Ms. Fairbrook received a Bachelor of Business Administration degree from St. Mary's University in San Antonio, Texas, with an emphasis in Human Resource Management, and is a Certified Compensation Professional.
Margaret M. Montemayor
Ms. Montemayor was elected as the Company's Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer in March 2014. Ms. Montemayor had previously served the Company as Vice President and Corporate Controller since January 2014, Corporate Controller from April 2012 to December 2013 and Director of Technical Accounting and Financial Reporting from June 2010 to March 2012. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Montemayor served as a Manager at PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP since June 2006. Ms. Montemayor graduated from St. Mary's University in San Antonio, Texas with a Bachelor of Business Administration degree in Accounting and a Master of Business Administration degree and is a Certified Public Accountant.
Neal H. Shah
Mr. Shah joined the Company in June 2017 as Vice President, Investor Relations. Before joining the Company, Mr. Shah served as Senior Equity Research Analyst at Thrivent Asset Management from June 2016 to June 2017, and as Vice President at Nuveen LLC from March 2006 to June 2016. He has a financial and equity research background and has held various financial analysis positions at Piper Jaffray & Company, RBC Capital Markets and Goldman Sachs & Company. Mr. Shah earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from Louisiana State University and a Master of Business Administration degree from the Booth School of Business at the University of Chicago, where he was a Siebel Scholar and a recipient of the Irwin J. Biedrman Leadership award.
Stephanie D. Stewart
Ms. Stewart joined the Company in June 2014 as Vice President and Chief Information Officer. Before joining the Company, she served as Vice President of E&P Data and Analytics at the end of her 12-year tenure at Devon Energy. Prior to Devon Energy, she worked in information technology at Williams Energy and BP Amoco. Ms. Stewart earned a Bachelor of Business Administration degree from the University of Oklahoma and her Executive Master of Business Administration degree in Energy from the University of Oklahoma's Price College of Business.
Officers are generally elected by the Company's board of directors at its meeting on the day of each annual election of directors, with each such officer serving until a successor has been elected and qualified.


46

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

PART II
ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The Company's common stock is listed and traded on the NYSE under the symbol "PXD." The Company's board of directors has authority to declare dividends to the holders of the Company's common stock. The board of directors intends to consider the payment of dividends to the holders of the Company's common stock in the future. The declaration and payment of future dividends, however, will be at the discretion of the board of directors and will depend on, among other things, the Company's earnings, financial condition, capital requirements, level of indebtedness, statutory and contractual restrictions applying to the payment of dividends and other considerations that the board of directors deems relevant.
As of February 21, 2019, the Company's common stock was held by 9,900 holders of record.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Purchases of the Company's common stock are as follows:
 
 
 Three months ended December 31, 2018
Period
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased (a)
 
Average Price Paid per Share
 
Total Number of 
Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
 
Approximate Dollar
Amount of Shares
that May Yet Be
Purchased under
Plans or Programs (b)
October 2018
 
51

 
$
175.90

 

 
$
77,647,626

November 2018
 
38

 
$
154.31

 

 
$
77,647,626

December 2018
 
976,412

 
$
130.94

 
973,465

 
$
1,872,535,773

 
 
976,501

 
 
 
973,465

 
 
__________________
(a)
Includes shares purchased from employees in order for employees to satisfy income tax withholding payments related to share-based awards that vested during the period.
(b)
In February 2018, the Company's board of directors authorized a $100 million common stock repurchase program. In December 2018, the Company's board of directors canceled the previously authorized program and authorized a new $2 billion common stock repurchase program.


47

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

Performance Graph
The following performance graph and related information shall not be deemed "soliciting material" or to be "filed" with the Securities and Exchange Commission, nor shall the information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or Securities Exchange Act of 1934, each as amended, except to the extent that the Company specifically incorporates it by reference into such filing.
The following graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return on the Company's common stock during the five-year period ended December 31, 2018, with cumulative total returns during the same period for the Standard & Poor's ("S&P") Oil and Gas Exploration & Production Index and the S&P 500.


http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12736961&doc=20

*$100 invested on 12/31/13 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.

 
As of December 31,
 
2013
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
Pioneer Natural Resources Company
$
100.00

 
$
80.90

 
$
68.18

 
$
97.97

 
$
94.09

 
$
71.73

S&P 500
$
100.00

 
$
113.69

 
$
115.26

 
$
129.05

 
$
157.22

 
$
150.33

S&P Oil & Gas Exploration & Production
$
100.00

 
$
89.41

 
$
58.87

 
$
78.22

 
$
73.29

 
$
58.99

The stock price performance included in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

48

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

ITEM 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The Company's selected consolidated financial data as of and for each of the five years ended December 31, 2018 should be read in conjunction with "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
(in millions, except per share data)
Statements of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Oil and gas revenues (a)
$
4,991

 
$
3,518

 
$
2,418

 
$
2,178

 
$
3,599

Sales of purchased oil and gas (b)
$
4,388

 
$
1,776

 
$
1,091

 
$
700

 
$
608

Gain on disposition of assets, net (c)
$
290

 
$
208

 
$
2

 
$
782

 
$
9

Total revenues and other income
$
9,415

 
$
5,455

 
$
3,382

 
$
4,561

 
$
4,954

Purchased oil and gas (b)
$
3,930

 
$
1,807

 
$
1,155

 
$
739

 
$
585

Total costs and expenses (a)(d)
$
8,164

 
$
5,146

 
$
4,341

 
$
4,982

 
$
3,357

Income (loss) from continuing operations
$
975

 
$
833

 
$
(556
)
 
$
(266
)
 
$
1,041

Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
(7
)
 
$
(111
)
Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders
$
978

 
$
833

 
$
(556
)
 
$
(273
)
 
$
930

Income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to common stockholders per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
5.71

 
$
4.86

 
$
(3.34
)
 
$
(1.79
)
 
$
7.17

Diluted
$
5.70

 
$
4.85

 
$
(3.34
)
 
$
(1.79
)
 
$
7.15

Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
5.71

 
$
4.86

 
$
(3.34
)
 
$
(1.83
)
 
$
6.40

Diluted
$
5.70

 
$
4.85

 
$
(3.34
)
 
$
(1.83
)
 
$
6.38

Dividends declared per share
$
0.32

 
$
0.08

 
$
0.08

 
$
0.08

 
$
0.08

Balance Sheet Data (as of December 31):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
$
17,903

 
$
17,003

 
$
16,459

 
$
15,154

 
$
14,909

Long-term obligations
$
3,974

 
$
3,596

 
$
4,482

 
$
5,317

 
$
4,901

Total equity
$
12,111

 
$
11,279

 
$
10,411

 
$
8,375

 
$
8,589

______________________
(a)
Results for 2018 are presented under Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 606, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers," while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with historical accounting under ASC 605, "Revenue Recognition." See Note 2 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
(b)
The Company enters into purchase transactions with third parties and separate sale transactions with third parties to (i) diversify a portion of the Company's oil sales to the Gulf Coast refinery or international export markets and (ii) satisfy unused gas pipeline capacity commitments. The net balance of these transactions results in either a cash uplift or cash detriment associated with these purchase and sale transactions.
(c)
See Note 3 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
(d)
The Company recorded unusual items in total costs and expenses as follows:
2018: $77 million of noncash impairment charges related to the Company's gas field assets in the Raton Basin; $443 million of accelerated depreciation on its sand mine assets to be decommissioned in 2019; $39 million of employee-related charges; and $124 million of contract termination charges associated with the Company's asset divestitures.
2017: $285 million of noncash impairment charges related to gas field assets in the Raton Basin.
2016: $32 million of noncash impairment charges related to oil and gas properties in the West Panhandle gas and liquids field.
2015: $1.1 billion of noncash impairment charges related to oil and gas properties in the West Panhandle gas and liquids field and West Eagle Ford Shale gas and liquids field.

49

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

See Note 3, Note 4 and Note 15 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.

50

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Financial and Operating Performance
Pioneer's financial and operating performance for 2018 included the following highlights:
Net income attributable to common stockholders was $978 million ($5.70 per diluted share) for the year ended December 31, 2018, as compared to net income of $833 million ($4.85 per diluted share) in 2017. The primary components of the $145 million increase in earnings attributable to common stockholders include:
a $1.5 billion increase in oil and gas revenues as a result of a 21 percent increase in average realized commodity prices per BOE, including the effects of a $207 million increase in gas and NGL revenues as a result of the adoption of new revenue recognition rules in 2018, combined with a 17 percent increase in sales volumes;
a $489 million increase in net revenue generated by purchases and sales of oil and gas, primarily related to the Company's firm transportation agreements that provide opportunities for enhanced margins by moving oil and gas from the Company's areas of production to price advantaged markets;
a $208 million decrease in impairment charges reflecting the 2018 noncash impairment charge of $77 million to reduce the carrying value of the Company's Raton Basin assets as compared to the 2017 noncash impairment charge of $285 million related to the same assets;
an $82 million increase in net gains on disposition of assets reflecting the 2018 divestitures of the Company's pressure pumping assets; Sinor Nest (Lower Wilcox) oil field; West Panhandle and West Eagle Ford Shale gas and liquids fields; and Raton Basin gas field assets; and
a $27 million decrease in interest expense, primarily due to the repayment of the Company's 6.875% senior notes, which matured in May 2018.
Partially offset by:
an $800 million increase in the Company's income tax provision, primarily a result of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which resulted in recording a $625 million income tax benefit during 2017;
a $605 million increase in other expense, primarily related to a noncash charge of $443 million associated with the Company's planned closure of its Brady, Texas sand mine and $173 million of asset divestiture-related charges associated with the sale of the aforementioned pressure pumping assets and oil and gas properties during 2018;
a $333 million increase in total oil and gas production costs and production and ad valorem taxes as a result of the adoption of new revenue recognition rules, which had the effect of increasing production costs by $207 million in 2018 and the aforementioned increases in commodity prices and sales volumes;
a $192 million increase in derivative net losses, primarily as a result of changes in forward commodity prices and the cash settlement of derivative positions in accordance with their terms;
a $134 million increase in DD&A expense, primarily related to the aforementioned increase in sales volumes due to the Company's successful Spraberry/Wolfcamp horizontal drilling program; and
a $55 million increase in general and administrative expense, primarily due to an increase in compensation costs, including benefits expense, as a result of an increase in headcount due to the Company's continued growth and costs associated with the implementation of a new enterprise resource planning system.
During 2018, average daily sales volumes increased on a BOE basis by 17 percent to 319,984 BOEPD, as compared to 272,330 BOEPD during 2017, primarily due to the Company's successful Spraberry/Wolfcamp horizontal drilling program, which more than offset the loss of production associated with the Company's 2018 divestitures.
Average oil and NGL prices increased per Bbl in 2018 to $57.36 and $29.84, respectively, as compared to $48.24 and $19.31, respectively, in 2017. Average gas prices decreased per Mcf in 2018 to $2.13 as compared to $2.63 in 2017.
Net cash provided by operating activities increased by 54 percent to $3.2 billion for 2018, as compared to $2.1 billion during 2017, primarily due to increases in the Company's oil and gas revenues in 2018 as a result of increases in commodity prices and sales volumes, partially offset by a $627 million reduction in cash available from commodity derivative activities.

51

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

First Quarter 2019 Outlook
Based on the Company's ongoing South Texas divestiture process, it is only providing Permian Basin specific estimates for production, production costs and DD&A expense for the quarter ending March 31, 2019. All other operating and financial results for the quarter ending March 31, 2019 provided below reflect the expected results of the total Company.
 
Three Months Ending March 31, 2019
 
Guidance
 
(in millions, except volumes, per BOE amounts and percentages)
Permian Basin Specific Guidance:
 
Average daily production (MBOE)
302 - 317
Average daily oil production (MBbl)
194 - 204
Production costs per BOE
$8.50 - $10.50
DD&A per BOE
$13.00 - $15.00
Total Company Guidance:
 
Exploration and abandonments expense
$20 - $30
General and administrative expense
$95 - $100
Accretion of discount on asset retirement obligations
$3 - $6
Interest expense
$28 - $33
Other expense
$45 - $55
Cash flow uplift from firm transportation
$40 - $100
Current income tax provision (benefit)
<$5
Effective tax rate
21% - 25%
2019 Capital Budget
The Company's capital budget for 2019 is expected to be in the range of $3.1 billion to $3.4 billion, consisting of $2.8 billion to $3.1 billion for drilling and completion related activities, including additional tank batteries and saltwater disposal facilities, and $300 million for gas processing facilities, water infrastructure, well services and vehicles. The 2019 capital budget excludes acquisitions, asset retirement obligations, capitalized interest and geological and geophysical general and administrative expense and corporate facilities.
The 2019 capital budget is expected to be funded from a combination of operating cash flow, cash and cash equivalents on hand, sales of short-term and long-term investments and, if necessary, proceeds from planned asset divestitures or borrowings under the Company's credit facility.
Divestitures
In February 2018, the Company announced its intention to divest its properties in the South Texas, Raton Basin and West Panhandle fields and focus its efforts and capital resources on its Permian Basin assets.
In December 2018, the Company completed the sale of its pressure pumping assets to ProPetro in exchange for total consideration of $282 million, comprised of $110 million of short-term receivables to be paid by ProPetro during the first quarter of 2019 and 16.6 million shares of ProPetro's common stock. On January 1, 2019, ProPetro became a strategic long-term service provider to the Company of pressure pumping and related services. The Company recorded a gain of $30 million, employee-related charges of $19 million, contract termination charges of $13 million and other divestiture-related charges of $6 million associated with the sale.
In December 2018, the Company completed the sale of approximately 2,900 net acres in the Sinor Nest (Lower Wilcox) oil field in South Texas to an unaffiliated third party for cash proceeds of $105 million, after normal closing adjustments. During 2018, the Company recorded a gain of $54 million associated with the sale.
In August 2018, the Company completed the sale of its assets in the West Panhandle gas and liquids field to an unaffiliated third party for net cash proceeds of $170 million, after normal closing adjustments. The assets sold represent all of the Company's interests in the field, including all of its producing wells and the associated infrastructure. During 2018, the Company recorded a gain of $127 million and employee-related charges of $7 million associated with sale.

52

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

In July 2018, the Company completed the sale of its gas field assets in the Raton Basin to an unaffiliated third party for net cash proceeds of $54 million, after normal closing adjustments. The Company recorded a noncash impairment charge of $77 million in June 2018 to reduce the carrying value of its Raton Basin assets to their estimated fair value less costs to sell as the assets were considered held for sale. The Company recorded a gain of $2 million associated with this divestiture. The Company also recorded divestiture-related charges of $117 million, including $111 million of deficiency charges related to certain firm transportation contracts retained by the Company and employee-related charges of $6 million.
In April 2018, the Company completed the sale of approximately 10,200 net acres in the West Eagle Ford Shale gas and liquids field to an unaffiliated third party for net cash proceeds of $100 million, after normal closing adjustments. The Company recorded a gain of $75 million associated with the sale.
In April 2017, the Company completed the sale of approximately 20,500 acres in the Martin County region of the Permian Basin, with net production of approximately1,500 BOEPD, to an unaffiliated third party for cash proceeds of $264 million. The sale resulted in a gain of $194 million.
See Note 3 and Note 4 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
Decommissioning Activities
In November 2018, the Company announced plans to close its sand mine located in Brady, Texas and transition its proppant supply requirements to West Texas sand sources. During 2018, the Company recorded $443 million of accelerated depreciation and $7 million of employee-related charges associated with the pending shutdown.
See Note 3 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
Results of Operations
Oil and gas revenues. Oil and gas revenues totaled $5.0 billion, $3.5 billion and $2.4 billion for 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
The increase in 2018 oil and gas revenues relative to 2017 is primarily due to increases of 20 percent, 16 percent and 12 percent in oil, NGL and gas sales volumes, respectively, and increases of 19 percent and 55 percent in oil and NGL prices, respectively, with a decrease of 19 percent in gas prices.
The increase in 2017 oil and gas revenues relative to 2016 is primarily due to increases of 19 percent, 26 percent and four percent in oil, NGL and gas sales volumes, respectively, and increases of 22 percent, 43 percent and 25 percent in oil, NGL and gas prices, respectively.
Average daily sales volumes in 2018 and 2017 increased by 17 percent and 16 percent, respectively, as compared to the average daily sales volumes in the respective prior years, principally due to the Company's successful Spraberry/Wolfcamp horizontal drilling program, which more than offset the loss of production associated with the Company's 2018 divestitures.
Average daily sales volumes are as follows:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Oil (Bbls)
190,639

 
158,571

 
133,677

NGLs (Bbls)
63,780

 
55,008

 
43,504

Gas (Mcf) (a)
393,391

 
352,507

 
339,966

Total (BOE)
319,984

 
272,330

 
233,842

_____________________
(a)
Gas production excludes gas produced and used as field fuel.
The oil, NGL and gas prices reported by the Company are based on the market prices received for the commodities. The average prices are as follows:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Oil (per Bbl)
$
57.36

 
$
48.24

 
$
39.65

NGLs (per Bbl)
$
29.84

 
$
19.31

 
$
13.49

Gas (per Mcf)
$
2.13

 
$
2.63

 
$
2.11

Total (per BOE)
$
42.73

 
$
35.39

 
$
28.25

Sales of purchased oil and gas. The Company enters into pipeline capacity commitments in order to secure available oil, NGL and gas transportation capacity from the Company's areas of production. The Company also enters into purchase transactions with third parties and separate sale transactions with third parties to (i) diversify a portion of the Company's oil sales to the Gulf Coast refinery or international export markets and (ii) satisfy unused gas pipeline capacity commitments. Revenues and expenses from these transactions are presented on a gross basis as the Company acts as a principal in the transaction by assuming both the risk and rewards of ownership, including credit risk, of the commodities purchased and the responsibility to deliver the commodities sold. The transportation costs associated with these transactions are presented on a net basis in purchased oil and gas expense. The net effect of third party purchases and sales of oil and gas for the year ended December 31, 2018 was earnings of $458 million, as compared to a loss of $31 million and a loss of $64 million for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Firm transportation payments on excess pipeline capacity are included in other expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. See Note 15 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.

53

Table of Contents
PIONEER NATURAL RESOURCES COMPANY

Interest and other income. The Company's interest and other income was $38 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, as compared to $53 million and $32 million for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The decrease in interest and other income for 2018 as compared to 2017 was primarily due to (i) a decrease of $3 million in interest income from short-term and long-term investments and (ii) a decrease of $12 million in severance, sales and property tax refunds. The increase in interest and other income for 2017 as compared to 2016 was primarily due to an increase of $11 million in severance, sales and property tax refunds and an increase of $10 million in interest income on short-term and long-term investments. See Note 14 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" for additional information.
Derivative gains (losses), net. The Company utilizes commodity swap contracts, option contracts and collar contracts with short puts to (i) reduce the effect of price volatility on the commodities the Company produces and sells or consumes, (ii) support the Company's annual capital budgeting and expenditure plans and (iii) reduce commodity price risk associated with certain capital projects. During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company recorded $292 million of derivative net losses, compared to $100 million and $161 million of derivative net losses for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively, on commodity price, marketing and interest rate derivatives. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company made net cash payments of $562 million related to its derivative activities, as compared to net cash receipts of $74 million and $690 million for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Commodity derivatives and the relative price impact (per Bbl or Mcf) are as follows:
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
Net cash (payments) (a)
 
Price impact (a)
 
Net cash receipts (payments)
 
Price impact
 
Net cash receipts
 
Price impact
 
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
Oil derivative receipts (payments)
 
$
(451
)
 
$
(6.48
)
per Bbl
 
$
67

 
$
1.15

per Bbl
 
$
609

 
$
12.42

per Bbl
NGL derivative receipts (payments)
 
(1
)
 
$
(0.05
)
per Bbl
 
(1
)
 
$
(0.06
)
per Bbl
 
5